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Flashcards in 4- Spine Conditions Deck (19)
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1

Red flag symptoms are present with mechanical back pain. True/False?

False

2

What is meant by spondylosis?

Intervertebral discs lose water content with age, resulting in less cushioning

3

Where does acute spinal disc tear occur (which part of the IV disc)?

Outer annulus fibrosis

4

What is characteristic of pain from acute IV disc tear?

Worse on coughing

5

Acute disc tears usually resolve by themselves. True/False?

True
Analgesia and physio are main treatment

6

What is the main complication of disc tears?

Nucleus pulposis can herniate outwards and impinge on nerve root

7

Pain in sciatica follows what distribution?

Dermatomal distribution

8

What is meant by spinal stenosis?

Cauda equina has little space and nerve roots can become compressed/irritated

9

List contributing factors to spinal stenosis

Bulging IV discs
Bulging spinal ligaments
Osteophytosis

10

Claudication classically occurs with spinal stenosis. How does this differ from vascular claudication?

Burning pain (rather than cramping)
Pain walking downhill
Pedal pulses normal

11

What is cauda equina syndrome?

Large central disc prolapse can compress all the nerve roots of the cauda equina

12

Cauda equina syndrome can be managed conservatively. True/False?

False
It is a surgical emergency!

13

List clinical features of cauda equina syndrome

Bilateral leg pain/paraesthesiae/numbness
Altered bowel habit

14

What examination is mandatory in cauda equina syndrome?

PR exam

15

What is the urgent treatment for cauda equina syndrome?

Urgent MRI to determine level of prolapse
Discectomy

16

List 4 red flag symptoms of spinal disease

Back pain in young patient
New back pain in old patient
Constant, severe pain, worse at night
Systemic upset

17

List clinical features of cervical nerve root compression

Shooting neuralgic pain in dermatomal pattern
Weakness/loss of reflexes

18

Which nerve root is involved for C6/C7 disc nerve root compression?

C7 root

19

Which nerve root is affected by C8/T1 disc nerve root compression?

C8 root