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Flashcards in 1- Bone Tumours Deck (28)
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1

What is the commonest benign bone tumour?

Osteochondroma

2

What does an osteochondroma look like?

Bony outgrowth on external surface with cartilagenous cap

3

What is the name given to an intramedullary, usually metaphyseal, cartilagenous tumour caused by failure of normal endochondral ossification?

Enchondroma

4

What does an enchondroma look like?

Usually lucent but can have patchy, sclerotic appearance

5

Which bones are usually affected by enchondromas?

Long bones (femur, humerus, tibia)
Small bones of hands and feet

6

What is the name given to a single-cavity benign fluid-filled cyst in a bone?

Simple bone cyst

7

How do simple bone cysts probably arise?

Growth defect from the physis

8

What do you call a bone cyst containing lots of chambers, usually filled with blood?

Aneurysmal bone cyst

9

Where do giant cell tumours usually occur?

Around the knee and distal radius

10

Are giant cell tumours painful?

Yes
Locally destructive

11

What is the characteristic appearance of giant cell tumours on XR?

"Soap-bubble" appearance

12

When does fibrous dysplasia of bone usually occur?

Adolescence, producing immature bone/fibrosis

13

What name is given to a small nidus of immature bone surrounded by a sclerotic halo?

Osteoid osteoma

14

What is the predominant clinical feature of osteoid osteoma?

Intense constant pain that is worse at night, relieved by NSAIDs

15

List general treatment for benign bone tumours

Curettage (scraping)
Bone grafting/cement
Excision
Radiofrequency ablation

16

What is the most common primary bone tumour?

Osteosarcoma

17

Most cases of osteosarcoma are seen in over 50s. True/False?

False
Most cases are seen in adolescence/early adulthood

18

Where does osteosarcoma affect 60% of the time?

Knee

19

Which is more common - chondrosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma?

Chondrosarcoma

20

Which age group is usually affected by chondrosarcoma?

45yr olds

21

What is Ewing's sarcoma?

Malignant tumour of primative cells in the marrow

22

Most cases of Ewing's sarcoma occur between the ages of 10 and 20. True/False?

True

23

List general treatment for primary malignant bone tumours

Surgical excision
Chemotherapy

24

List the primary malignant tumours that metastasise commonly to bone, from most to less frequent

Breast carcinoma
Prostate carcinoma
Lung carcinoma
Renal cell carcinoma
Thyroid adenocarcinoma

25

List features suggestive of a benign soft tissue neoplasm

Small size
Variable size
Cystic lesions
Well-defined
Fluid-filled/fatty

26

List features suggestive of a malignant soft tissue neoplasm

Large size
Rapid growth
Solid
Ill-defined
Irregular surface
Systemic features

27

What is the commonest benign soft tissue tumour?

Lipoma

28

Where do ganglion cysts occur?

Around a synovial joint/synovial tendon sheath