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Flashcards in 4- Knee Conditions Deck (26)
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1

Describe a "total" knee replacement

Resurfacing all 3 compartments of the knee

2

Describe a "partial" knee replacement

Resurfacing 1 compartment of the knee (usually patellofemoral)

3

There is a greater incidence of pain assoc. with knee replacements compared to hip replacements. True/False?

True

4

How do meniscal tears classically occur?

Twisting force

5

Where do patients usually localise meniscal tear injury?

Joint line of the knee
Medial (majority)
Lateral (occasionally)

6

If a patient describes a "locked knee", what pathology should be suspected?

Bucket-handle mensical tear

7

Define true "locking" of the knee

Mechanical block to full knee extension

8

What is the difference between locking and pseudolocking of the knee?

Pseudolocking will resolve spontaneously/patient describes trick manoevure to overcome the locking

9

How do ACL ruptures classically arise?

Great rotational force upon a planted foot

10

What, clinically, usually accompanies an ACL rupture?

"pop" sound
Haemarthrosis
Rotatory instability (chronic)

11

A rugby tackle from the side will usually cause which ligament to damage?

Medial collateral, causing valgus stress injury

12

A direct blow to the anterior tibia with the knee flexed (car crash) may rupture which ligament?

Posterior cruciate

13

A varus stress injury causes rupture of which ligament?

Lateral collateral

14

Which test is used to define a meniscal tear?

Steinmann's test

15

Which meniscal tear is more common - medial or lateral?

Medial
(it is less mobile)

16

Which type of meniscal tear causes a bucket-handle tear?

Longitudinal tear

17

List the 4 types of meniscal tear

Longitudinal
Radial
Oblique
Horizontal

18

Degenerative meniscal tears are usually Steinmann's positive. True/False?

False

19

Why do meniscal tears have limited healing potential?

Small blood supply

20

What clinical tests will help define ACL rupture?

Lachman test
Anterior drawer test

21

Primary repair of ACL rupture is not effective. True/False?

True
Most get reconstruction

22

What does reconstruction of ACL involve?

Tendon grafting (patellar/temitendinouus-gracilis)

23

What structures are involved in the extensor mechanism of the knee?

Tibial tuberosity
Patellar tendon
Patella
Quadriceps tendon
Quadriceps

24

How does the patellar/quadriceps tendon usually rupture?

Rapid contractile force (lifting heavy weight)

25

What clinical test helps define whether the extensor mechanism of the knee is intact?

Straight leg raise

26

List clinical signs of patellofemoral dysfunction

Anterior knee pain worse going downhill
Grinding/clicking sensation
Pseudolocking