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Flashcards in 4- Upper Limb Conditions Deck (33)
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1

What forms the carpal tunnel in the wrist?

Carpal bones
Flexor retinaculum

2

Which clinically important nerve passes through the carpal tunnel?

Median nerve

3

How does carpal tunnel syndrome arise?

Swelling/synovitis in the tunnel causes median nerve compression

4

List aetiology + conditions assoc. with carpal tunnel syndrome

Rheumatoid arthritis
Pregnancy, diabetes, renal failure
Wrist fracture (Colles)

5

Women are more affected than men by carpal tunnel syndrome. True/False?

True

6

List clinical features of carpal tunnel syndrome

Parasthesiae in median-nerve-innervated fingers
Weakness, clumsiness
Muscle wasting

7

What is Tinel's test?

Percussion over the median nerve

8

What is Phalen's test?

Hold wrist hyper-flexed (decreases space in carpal tunnel)

9

Describe surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome

Division of transverse carpal ligament under local anaesthetic

10

Which nerve is compressed in cubital tunnel syndrome? Where?

Ulnar nerve, behind the medial epicondyle

11

What is the name of the tight band of fascia that forms the roof of the cubital tunnel?

Osborne's fascia

12

The common extensor origin of the upper limb arises from which epicondyle?

Lateral epicondyle
Medial epicondyle for common flexor origin

13

What is the nickname for lateral epicondylitis?

Tennis elbow

14

What muscle origin is stressed in lateral epicondylitis?

Common extensor origin (resisted extension)

15

What is the nickname for medial epicondylitis?

Golfer's elbow

16

What muscle origin is stressed in medial epicondylitis?

Common flexor origin

17

Lateral epicondylitis is more common than medial epicondylitis. True/False?

True
(becos more people play tennis lol)

18

What is Dupuytren's disease?

Hyperplasia of palmar fascia, forming nodules and cords causing contractures of MCP and PIP joints

19

Which type of collagen is produced in Dupuytren's disease?

Type III

20

Which fingers are usually affected by contracture in Dupuytren's disease?

Ring finger
Little finger

21

Males are more affected by Dupuytren's than females. True/False?

True
10:1

22

Up to how many degrees of Dupuytren's contracture at the MCP joint can be tolerated before surgery is recommended?

30'

23

What surgical procedures are done for Dupuytren's disease?

Fasciectomy
Fasciotomy
Amputation (severe)

24

What is trigger finger?

Clicking/locking of finger in flexed position

25

How does trigger finger arise?

Tendonitis of flexor tendon causes nodular enlargement which catches in fascia over metacarpal

26

Outline treatment of trigger finger

Steroid injection
Surgical incision

27

Which joints in the hand are usually affected by OA?

PIPJs
DIPJs

28

What are Heberden's nodes? Which joints do they affect?

Bony thickening in the hands
DIPJs

29

What are Bouchard's nodes? Which joints do they affect?

Bony swellings in the hands
PIPJs

30

Which hand joints are usually affected by RA?

MCPJs