4.2 adaptations & changing populations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.2 adaptations & changing populations Deck (33):
1

organisms adapt to exploit their niche to ensure it is different enough to avoid what?

competition

2

what is a niche?

the way in which an organism fits into their ecosystem through adaptation

3

what is adaptation?

specialising to suit the environment in which you live

4

what are the 3 types of adaptation?

behavioural
anatomical
physiological

5

what is a physiological adaptation?

internal workings of an organism helping them survive and reproduce

6

(physiological) e.g. poison production snakes can produce deadly venom to do what?

immobilise prey making them easier to digest

7

(physiological) e.g. some bacteria are able to produce what?

antibiotics that can kill other types of bacteria close by

8

(physiological) e.g. water holding in plants is useful for plants how?

cacti and dessert plants storing water in tissues helps them survive harsh conditions where they may go months without water

9

(physiological) the white Danish scurvy grass is adapted to deal with high what?

salt concentrations

10

(physiological) fish, birds and whales are adapted to be able to drink what?

salt water

11

(behavioural) what is a behavioural adaptation?

action by the organism helping them to survive and reproduce

12

(behavioural) e.g. survival behaviours are intended to do what?

increase an organisms chance of survival e.g. the fight or flight response

13

(behavioural) e.g. animals can display elaborate courtship behaviours to increase chances of what?

attracting a mate increasing chance of reproduction

14

(behavioural) e.g. seasonal behaviours help an organism do what?

cope with seasonal changes in their environment

15

(behavioural) give an example of a useful seasonal behaviour:

hibernation -slow heart and breathing rate to conserve energy, lowering requirement for food when it is too cold to hunt prey

16

(behavioural) e.g. what can plants do to get more light?

turn their leaves toward the sun

17

(anatomical) what are anatomical adaptations?

adaptations in structures that can be observed when an organism is dissected

18

(anatomical) give examples of body coverings and how they are useful in different species:

feathers on birds for flight
fur on polar bear for warmth
shell of a snail for protection
waxy cuticle on plants to prevent water loss
spikes to deter predators

19

(anatomical) what does camouflage allow an animal to do?

blend with its environment increasing survival chances as predators are less likely to spot them

20

(anatomical) give an example of an animal with camouflage:

snowshoe hare
brown during summer to blend with soil
white during winter to blend with snow

21

(anatomical) teeth differ in animals dependant on what?

what food they consume

22

(anatomical) what type of teeth do carnivores such as lions have?

large and sharp teeth to tear apart their prey

23

(anatomical) sharks have rows of teeth incase what?

some are lost

24

(anatomical) herbivores don't have sharp teeth but molars for what?

chewing tough grass

25

What is co-evolution?

Adaptation of two organisms which evolve in tandem and become dependent on each other

26

How is a giant panda adapted?

Large body mass
Sharp teeth to chew bamboo
Ability to walk and climb so their paws have good grip

27

What is convergent evolution?

Unrelated species share similar traits due to adapting to similar environments and selection pressures

28

(Changing pop.) all organisms are exposed to selection pressures what are these?

Factors that affect organisms chances of survival or reproductive success

29

(Changing pop.) 1. Organisms show variation due to differences in what?

Alleles/genes

30

(Changing pop.) 2. Organisms best adapted to selection pressure do what?

Increased chance of survival and reproduction

31

(Changing pop.) 3. Successful organisms pass what on?

Advantageous characteristics

32

(Changing pop.) 4. Overtime the proportion of individuals with advantageous adaptation does what?

Increasing
Frequency of the allele coding for this increases

33

(Changing pop.) 5. Over generations the process can lead to what?

Evolution of a new species

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