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Flashcards in 9.12 Neoplasia 1 Deck (37):
1

a new growth that exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of normal tissue. Usually persists even when stimulus is removed is called ____________.

neoplasia

2

malignant neoplasms

cancer

3

synonym for neoplasm, not necessarily malignant

tumor

4

_______ persists even when the original stimulus leaves

neoplasia

5

neoplasms are composed of two basic tissue types: ___________ and ________ ______

parenchyma
reactive stroma

6

classification of neoplasms are based on ___________ cell type

parenchymal cell type

7

a lot of new collagen formation in response to invasion (in the reactive stroma) is called the ___________ ___________

desmoplastic response

8

more than one parenchymal cell type from more than one germ layer is called a _________

teratoma

9

you attach the suffix "-oma" to ______ neoplasms

benign

10

you attach the suffix "-sarcoma" to what types of neoplasms?

malignant neoplasms of mesenchyme origin

11

you attach the suffix "- carcinoma" to what types of neoplasms?

malignant neoplasms of epithelial origin

12

adenoma

benign neoplasm of glands

13

lipoma

benign neoplasm of fat

14

chromdroma

benign neoplasm of cartilage

15

leiomyoma

benign neoplasm of smooth muscle

16

rhabdomyoma

benign neoplasm of skeletal muscle

17

fibroma

benign neoplasm of fibroblasts

18

malignant neoplasm of mesenchyme origin

sarcoma

19

malignant neoplasm of epithelial origin

carcinoma

20

lack of differentiation is called ________

anaplasia

21

degree to which neoplastic cells resemble the normal tissue from which they are derived. How close to the neoplastic cells resemble the normal structure of that tissue? (functionally and morphologically)

differentiation

22

name some features of anaplastic cells:

pleomorphism, hyper chromatic nuclei, abnormal mitotic figures, loss of cell polarity, increased N:C ratio, prominent nucleoli, loss of normal structure formation

23

most benign neoplasms are _____ growing and most malignant neoplasms are _____ growing

slow
fast

24

if there is ________, it ALWAYS identifies that neoplasm as malignant

metastasis

25

not all malignancies can metastasize. True or false? Give an example

true, basal cell CA of skin

26

apart from presence of metastasis, ______ _________ is the most reliable feature that distinguishes a benign from malignant tumor

local invasion

27

what are the three ways malignancies can metastasize?

1. body cavity seeding
2. through lymphatics
3. through blood

28

lymphatic spread is characteristic of _________

carcnimoas

29

_____ are penetrated more easily than _______ to get into blood flow

veins
arteries

30

the favored pathway for _______ is hematogenous

sarcomas

31

what is considered the biggest risk factor for cancer?

age

32

retinoblastoma is a cancer of the eye that is _________

inhereted

33

the categories of genetic predisposition to
cancer.

1. mutations in tumor suppression genes
2. defective DNA repair

34

what three acquired conditions can increase risk for cancer?

1. chronic inflammation
2. precursor lesions
3. immunodeficient states

35

patients in immunodeficient states are at an increased risk for ______ ______ such as ___ associated lymphomas

oncogenic viruses
EBV

36

why does chronic inflammation increase risk for cancer?

there is compensatory cellular proliferation which increases risks of mutations
inflammatory cells secrete ROS, increasing risk of mutations and damage

37

precursor lesions also increase risk for cancer. what are the 4 types of these?

1. those that go along with chronic inflammation (get metaplasia)
2. non-inflammatory hyperplasias
3. leukoplakia of oral mucosa and genitals
3. benign neoplasms that turn malignant