Flashcards in 9.12 Neoplasia 1 Deck (37):
a new growth that exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of normal tissue. Usually persists even when stimulus is removed is called ____________.
synonym for neoplasm, not necessarily malignant
_______ persists even when the original stimulus leaves
neoplasms are composed of two basic tissue types: ___________ and ________ ______
classification of neoplasms are based on ___________ cell type
parenchymal cell type
a lot of new collagen formation in response to invasion (in the reactive stroma) is called the ___________ ___________
more than one parenchymal cell type from more than one germ layer is called a _________
you attach the suffix "-oma" to ______ neoplasms
you attach the suffix "-sarcoma" to what types of neoplasms?
malignant neoplasms of mesenchyme origin
you attach the suffix "- carcinoma" to what types of neoplasms?
malignant neoplasms of epithelial origin
benign neoplasm of glands
benign neoplasm of fat
benign neoplasm of cartilage
benign neoplasm of smooth muscle
benign neoplasm of skeletal muscle
benign neoplasm of fibroblasts
malignant neoplasm of mesenchyme origin
malignant neoplasm of epithelial origin
lack of differentiation is called ________
degree to which neoplastic cells resemble the normal tissue from which they are derived. How close to the neoplastic cells resemble the normal structure of that tissue? (functionally and morphologically)
name some features of anaplastic cells:
pleomorphism, hyper chromatic nuclei, abnormal mitotic figures, loss of cell polarity, increased N:C ratio, prominent nucleoli, loss of normal structure formation
most benign neoplasms are _____ growing and most malignant neoplasms are _____ growing
if there is ________, it ALWAYS identifies that neoplasm as malignant
not all malignancies can metastasize. True or false? Give an example
true, basal cell CA of skin
apart from presence of metastasis, ______ _________ is the most reliable feature that distinguishes a benign from malignant tumor
what are the three ways malignancies can metastasize?
1. body cavity seeding
2. through lymphatics
3. through blood
lymphatic spread is characteristic of _________
_____ are penetrated more easily than _______ to get into blood flow
the favored pathway for _______ is hematogenous
what is considered the biggest risk factor for cancer?
retinoblastoma is a cancer of the eye that is _________
the categories of genetic predisposition to
1. mutations in tumor suppression genes
2. defective DNA repair
what three acquired conditions can increase risk for cancer?
1. chronic inflammation
2. precursor lesions
3. immunodeficient states
patients in immunodeficient states are at an increased risk for ______ ______ such as ___ associated lymphomas
why does chronic inflammation increase risk for cancer?
there is compensatory cellular proliferation which increases risks of mutations
inflammatory cells secrete ROS, increasing risk of mutations and damage