Flashcards in 9.12 Neoplasia 2 Deck (43):
what does the presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tell you?
elevated in a variety of cancers
what does ionizing radiation do to DNA?
chromosomal breakage (deletions), point mutations, translocations
a lung carcinoma produces parathyroid hormone. what is this an example of?
the process of going from a normal cell to a cancer cell
what can molecular studies tell you about cancer cells? what types are there?
are there translocations or other genetic changes associated with malignancy?
karyotypic analysis, PCR, FISH
what histologic features are used in grading?
degree of differentiation
number of mitotic figures
RB and p53 are examples of
tumor repressor genes
how does human papillomavirus work?
viral proteins E6/E7 inhibit Rb and p53
histology is used for tumor _______
Aflatoxin B1 is an ________ _______, which _______ itself in DNA. In which gene?
what are 3 examples of tumor markers?
prostate specific antigen
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
___________ ___ is a type of chemical carcinogen that is found naturally in a fungus (mold).
________ ________ chemical carcinogens do not need metabolic activation
grade 2 means:
what could cachexia be due to?
tumor products, cytokines from inflammatory cells
UVB light is ______ energy and causes DNA damage by forming _______ ________
pyrimidine dimers (tyrosine)
grade 3 means:
poorly differentiated - disorganized, high N:C ratio, many mitoses, often necrotic
staging of a tumor is based on what system?
extent of tumor (size)
extent of spread to regional lymph nodes (node involvement)
metastases (presence of metastases)
what does TNM stand for? what is it used for?
used for tumor staging
T - tumor (size, depth)
N - nodes?
M - metastases?
what are the steps in chemical carcinogenesis?
1. tumor initiation (chemical --> mutation)
2. tumor promotion (cell proliferation from promoter)
3. tumor progression (becomes autonomous due to sufficient mutations)
4. malignancy (cancer - can invade and metastasize)
Aflatoxin B1 is a chemical carcinogen that causes what type of cancer?
how does Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) increase risk for cancer?
cause of chronic infection (gastritis and ulcers) and can increase risk of gastric carcinoma and pancreatic cancer
what does the presence of alpha-fetoprotein tell you?
most likely cancer of liver/gonads
could also be elevated in pregnancy
what are two hormonal effects a tumor can have?
1. endocrine gland neoplasms secrete hormone normally produced by that organ
2. tumors from non-endocrine tissues may elaborate hormones (paraneoplastic syndromes)
mutated porto-oncogenes =
alkylating agents are a type of ______ carcinogen. What do they do, why are they bad?
they alkylate DNA, altering base pairing
oncoproteins are ________ ________ (NOT dependent on growth signals or responsive to inhibitory signals)
an example of indirect acting chemical carcinogen
tobacco (needs combustion)
grade 1 means:
well-differentiated, resembles normal tissue
_____ ______ virus is associated with types of B-cell lymphoma (Burkitt lymphoma). Viral proteins promote B-cell survival and proliferation.
Epstein Barr virus (EBV)
what does the presence of prostate specific antigen tell you?
most likely prostate carcinoma
human papillomavirus (HPV) is THE major cause of what?
cervical cancer (SCC)
this effect of tumor on host is a wasting syndrome, it causes loss of body fat and muscle mass. There is profound weakness, anemia, and anorexia.
the 4 regulatory genes that could be targets of mutations related to cancer:
2. tumor-supressor genes
3. regulators of apoptosis
4. DNA repair genes
____________ _______ is a bacteria that is a cause of chronic infection (gastritis and ulcers) and can increase risk of gastric carcinoma and pancreatic cancer
Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)
hormone production by a neoplasm derived from cells that do not normally produce this hormone (not of endocrine origin - ectopic hormone production)
growth factors, ras, myc, cyclins and CDKs are all examples of:
mutations in what genes allow for accumulation of mutations in photo-oncogenes, tumor repressor genes, and apoptotic regulatory genes?
DNA repair genes
what is the most common example of paraneoplastic syndrome? what is it due to?
small cell carcinoma of lung that produces corticotropin
in diagnosis is cancer, if histologic methods are not clear, we may need:
indirect acting chemical carcinogens need _________ to become active
malignancy is seen after an ________ of mutations