9.12 Neoplasia 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9.12 Neoplasia 2 Deck (43):
1

what does the presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tell you?

elevated in a variety of cancers

2

what does ionizing radiation do to DNA?

chromosomal breakage (deletions), point mutations, translocations

3

a lung carcinoma produces parathyroid hormone. what is this an example of?

paraneoplastic syndrome

4

the process of going from a normal cell to a cancer cell

carcinogenesis

5

what can molecular studies tell you about cancer cells? what types are there?

are there translocations or other genetic changes associated with malignancy?
karyotypic analysis, PCR, FISH

6

what histologic features are used in grading?

degree of differentiation
pleomorphism
number of mitotic figures
necrosis?

7

RB and p53 are examples of

tumor repressor genes

8

how does human papillomavirus work?

viral proteins E6/E7 inhibit Rb and p53

9

histology is used for tumor _______

grading

10

Aflatoxin B1 is an ________ _______, which _______ itself in DNA. In which gene?

intercalating agent
inserts
p53

11

what are 3 examples of tumor markers?

prostate specific antigen
alpha-fetoprotein
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

12

___________ ___ is a type of chemical carcinogen that is found naturally in a fungus (mold).

Aflatoxin B1

13

________ ________ chemical carcinogens do not need metabolic activation

direct

14

grade 2 means:

moderately differentiated

15

what could cachexia be due to?

tumor products, cytokines from inflammatory cells

16

UVB light is ______ energy and causes DNA damage by forming _______ ________

radiant
pyrimidine dimers (tyrosine)

17

grade 3 means:

poorly differentiated - disorganized, high N:C ratio, many mitoses, often necrotic

18

staging of a tumor is based on what system?

TNM system
extent of tumor (size)
extent of spread to regional lymph nodes (node involvement)
metastases (presence of metastases)

19

what does TNM stand for? what is it used for?

used for tumor staging
T - tumor (size, depth)
N - nodes?
M - metastases?

20

what are the steps in chemical carcinogenesis?

1. tumor initiation (chemical --> mutation)
2. tumor promotion (cell proliferation from promoter)
3. tumor progression (becomes autonomous due to sufficient mutations)
4. malignancy (cancer - can invade and metastasize)

21

Aflatoxin B1 is a chemical carcinogen that causes what type of cancer?

liver

22

how does Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) increase risk for cancer?

cause of chronic infection (gastritis and ulcers) and can increase risk of gastric carcinoma and pancreatic cancer

23

what does the presence of alpha-fetoprotein tell you?

most likely cancer of liver/gonads
could also be elevated in pregnancy

24

what are two hormonal effects a tumor can have?

1. endocrine gland neoplasms secrete hormone normally produced by that organ
2. tumors from non-endocrine tissues may elaborate hormones (paraneoplastic syndromes)

25

mutated porto-oncogenes =

oncogenes

26

alkylating agents are a type of ______ carcinogen. What do they do, why are they bad?

chemical
they alkylate DNA, altering base pairing

27

oncoproteins are ________ ________ (NOT dependent on growth signals or responsive to inhibitory signals)

constitutively active

28

an example of indirect acting chemical carcinogen

tobacco (needs combustion)

29

grade 1 means:

well-differentiated, resembles normal tissue

30

_____ ______ virus is associated with types of B-cell lymphoma (Burkitt lymphoma). Viral proteins promote B-cell survival and proliferation.

Epstein Barr virus (EBV)

31

what does the presence of prostate specific antigen tell you?

most likely prostate carcinoma

32

human papillomavirus (HPV) is THE major cause of what?

cervical cancer (SCC)

33

this effect of tumor on host is a wasting syndrome, it causes loss of body fat and muscle mass. There is profound weakness, anemia, and anorexia.

cachexia

34

the 4 regulatory genes that could be targets of mutations related to cancer:

1. proto-oncogenes
2. tumor-supressor genes
3. regulators of apoptosis
4. DNA repair genes

35

____________ _______ is a bacteria that is a cause of chronic infection (gastritis and ulcers) and can increase risk of gastric carcinoma and pancreatic cancer

Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)

36

hormone production by a neoplasm derived from cells that do not normally produce this hormone (not of endocrine origin - ectopic hormone production)

paraneoplastic syndrome

37

growth factors, ras, myc, cyclins and CDKs are all examples of:

protooncogenes

38

mutations in what genes allow for accumulation of mutations in photo-oncogenes, tumor repressor genes, and apoptotic regulatory genes?

DNA repair genes

39

what is the most common example of paraneoplastic syndrome? what is it due to?

Cushing syndrome
small cell carcinoma of lung that produces corticotropin

40

in diagnosis is cancer, if histologic methods are not clear, we may need:

immunohistochemistry
flow cytometry
molecular studies

41

indirect acting chemical carcinogens need _________ to become active

metabolism

42

malignancy is seen after an ________ of mutations

accumulation

43

hepatitis viruses (B and C) are commonly implicated in what type of cancer?

hepatocellular carcinoma