Flashcards in 9.8 The Genetic Code and Translation Deck (25):
________ is the process through which genetic information is converted to protein products
how many bases are there per codon?
the code is _________ (redundant), some amino acids are coded by more than one _______
_____ are proteins that read the codons and attach the right amino acid. They have non-standard __________ that are essential for enzymes to recognize which protein they are dealing with and attach the right aa.
what enzyme attaches the correct amino acid to the correct tRNA?
amino acyl-tRNA synthetase
how many amino acyl-tRNA synthetases are there?
20, one for each amino acid
amino acyl-tRNA synthetases are completely specific for both the _____ and _______
tRNA and amino acid
The _____________ recognizes specific modified nucleotides within individual tRNAs, allowing correct addition of amino acids.
amino acyl tRNA synthetase
are there the same amount of tRNAs as codons? (there are 61 codons not including stop codons). If not, how many tRNAs are there?
no. there are 48 tRNAs.
some tRNAs need to recognize more than 1 codon. The non-standard base pairing between the third base of the codon and the corresponding anticodon in the tRNA is called:
the most important modified nucleotide is _____ (closely related to guanine). Is is a purine or pyrimidine? What can it pair with?
C, A, U
a mutation in the mitochondrial gene encoding leucine tRNA causes _______, a human genetic disease that has mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like symptoms.
in MELAS, a mutation prevents the efficient recognition of the _____ by the appropriate ____________ and therefore interferes with synthesis of mitochondrial proteins.
___________________ disease is a common genetics disease that results in peripheral neuropathy. Associated with mutations in the gene encoding for glycyl-tRNA synthetase.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is caused by a mutation in the ____________, the _______ that attaches _____ to its appropriate _____.
amino acyl tRNA synthetase
glycine to its appropriate tRNA
the ______ is the fundamental machinery for translation
translation always starts at the start codon ____, which codes for _____
in order to begin translation, an initiation complex is formed from the following factors:
3. small subunit of ribosome
4. initiation factors (ex. eIF-2)
the initiation complex for translation recognizes the ____ structure at the 5' end of an mRNA
after binding the cap structure at the 5' end of an mRNA, the initiation complex moves along the mRNA until it comes in contact with the first ____ sequence. ____ provides unwinding for secondary structures in the mRNA
In the process of translation: When the first AUG is located, ____ is hydrolyzed and ____ leaves the initiation complex. The large ribosomal subunit joins the complex and translation occurs.
What is the enzyme that catalyzes peptide bond formation on the ribosome? (between P and A sites on the large ribosome)
a single mRNA translated by multiple ribosomes at the same time.
what are the three stop codons?