9.29 Gastrulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9.29 Gastrulation Deck (16):
1

the inner cell mass splits, differentiating into the ______ (above) and ______ (below). Which of these will develop into the embryo?

epiblast
hypoblast

epiblast will develop into embryo

2

the epiblast divides again by formation of a space called the ______ cavity. The top layer is the ___________ and the bottom is the _____.

amniotic
amniotic membrane
epiblast

3

the position where the epiblast cells migrate towards the midline and move inwards (ingress) to form more layers is called the:

primitive streak

4

migratory cells (in general) from the epiblast are called:

mesenchyme

5

the first cells to involute during gastrulation make the ________.

endoderm

6

the cells that fill the space between the endoderm and the epiblast become the _______, and the ones that remain in the epiblast become the _____.

mesoderm
ectoderm

7

the thickening of the primitive streak at the cephalic end is called the __________

primitive node

8

_______ cells migrate directly cranially from the primitive node.

notochord cells

9

the _______ is a rigid structure that serves as a simple embryonic spine and is critical for signaling.

notochord

10

The ____ and _____ membranes are the two places that the mesenchyme does not fill

oral
cloacal

11

what do the oral and cloacal membranes form, respectively?

the mouth and the anus

12

if the primitive streak does not regress completely, it could give rise to _____________.

sacral teratomas

13

what derivatives come from the ectoderm germ layer?

outer layer of skin (epidermis), neural tissues

14

what derivatives come from the endoderm germ layer?

gut tube, bladder, liver, pancreas, lungs

15

what derivatives come from the mesoderm germ layer?

skeletal and smooth muscle, heart and blood vessels, blood, bones, dermis of skin.

16

differentiated cells can be converted into pluripotent stem cells by forced expression of transcription factor genes. what are these called?

induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs)