9.29 Germ Layers 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9.29 Germ Layers 1 Deck (30):
1

the notochord induces overlying ectodermal tissue to form the _______ (the precursor of the CNS)

neural plate

2

peripheral neurons are formed from the _________ cells

neural crest cells

3

failure of fusion of the neural tube at the cranial end

anencephaly

4

failure of fusion of the neural tube at the caudal end

spina bifida

5

where are neural crest cells located?

at the crests of the neural plate that form the neural folds

6

the dorsal root ganglia come from what kinds of neural precursor cells?

neural crest cells

7

the PNS come from what kinds of neural precursor cells?

neural crest cells

8

most of the bones and cartilage of the face come from what kinds of neural precursor cells? NOTE: NOT MUSCLE

neural crest cells

9

melanocytes come from what precursor cell?

neural crest cells

10

the CT of the aortic arch arteries and the septum separating aorta and pulmonary vessel come from what kinds of neural precursor cells?

neural crest cells

11

cells of the CNS come from what kinds of neural precursor cells?

neural plate cells

12

cells migrate through the _______ arches, which are the routes of neural crest cells into their facial structures

pharyngeal arches

13

neural crest cells in neurofibromatosis ________. What does this cause?

over proliferate.
It causes benign tumors in the brain (Schwann cells) and the skin (melanocytes)

14

insufficient neural crest contribution to the face. Deficiency in neural crest cells, causes severe facial defects.

Trencher-Collins Syndrome

15

Teacher-Collins Syndrome shows ________ neural crest cell contribution to the ______

insufficient
face

16

in ___________ syndrome, facial alterations, hair pigmentation abnormalities. Mostly due to defects in Sox10 of Pax3 genes

Waardenberg Syndrome

17

mammary glands and the pituitary gland, and sweat glands come from which germ layer?

ectoderm

18

the paraxial mesoderm eventually forms ______

somites

19

the intermediate mesoderm eventually forms what? (2 things)

the urinary and reproductive system

20

what are the three regions of mesoderm?

paraxial, intermediate, and lateral mesoderm

21

what do somites form in the embryo?

primitive musculature

22

somites are next to the __________

neural tube

23

the formation of a somite involves a transient structure: the __________

somitomere

24

except for the ___ pairs of somitomeres at the _______ end, all somitomeres become somites

7
cranial

25

________, a region of tissue from the somite, migrates all around the neural tube and makes the bones of the vertebra

sclerotome

26

after the sclerotome leaves from the somite, the dermamyotome differentiates into the ________ and the _________

dermatome
myotome

27

the ______ (a section of the somite) makes the dermis of the skin

dermatome

28

the _________ (a section of the somite) makes the body muscles

myotome

29

what are two examples of segmentation in the human embryonic body plan?

1. repeating structure of the somites
2. Rhombomeres of the brain

Spine, etc.

30

muscle of the face comes from ________ ___________

cranial somitomeres