9.7 Gene Regulation 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9.7 Gene Regulation 1 Deck (31):
1

the type of DNA binding domain that consists of protein structure surrounding a zinc is called a ________. Some residues form an _______ structure, which contacts the _____ groove of DNA. This is sequence ______ (specific, non specific?)

zinc finger
alpha-helix
major
specific

2

acetylation of histones ________ transcription while methylation of histones ________ transcription

increases, decreases

3

_______________________ stabilize the interaction between RNA polymerase II and the transcription initiation complex

enhancer binding proteins (positive regulatory proteins)

4

One of the alpha helices in the helix-turn-helix binding domain fits in the _____ groove of DNA. the binding is _____ (specific or non specific?)

major
specific

5

any protein domain that can act to _________ the preinitatnion complex can function as a repressor.

destabilize

6

the presence of ________ decreases the level of transcription from an adjacent promoter

repressors

7

is a promoter gene specific or gene general?

gene general. it binds general transcription factors

8

enhancer binding proteins loop and can interact with the _____________________ (proteins around promoter region)

transcription initiation complex

9

positive regulatory proteins bind _________

enhancers

10

in ________ syndrome, there are defects in neural crest cells and inner ear development, intestinal defects, deadness, and abnormal pigmentation. It is caused by defects in what transcription factor?

Waardenburg syndrome
SOX10 transcription factor.

11

transcription regulatory proteins have two domains:

DNA binding domain
transcription activating/repressing domain

12

most genes have ______ regulatory elements (enhancer regions) - amount

many

13

transcription can begin ONLY when the binding between _______ and __________ is complete and stable.

RNA polymerase and the transcription initiation complex (usually this is unstable)

14

helix-turn-helix binding domains usually form ______. If these are identical, the binding sites are _______.

dimers
symmetrical

15

in the protein alpha helix binding domain, the binding is ______ (specific, non-specific)? Why?

specific
specific amino acids in side chains of the alpha helix can contact specific base pairs in DNA.

16

what homeodomain TF can cause congenital heart defects (mainly underdeveloped L ventricle) if function of one copy of the gene is lost?

NKX2-5

17

the presence of an ________ increases the level of transcription from an adjacent promoter

enhancer

18

the binding domain characterized by a short region of two alpha-helices separated by a short loop region

helix-turn-helix

19

enhancer binding proteins stabilize RNA polymerase binding at the ________ (region)

promoter

20

unlike DNA binding domains, transcription activating domains are completely _________.

interchangeable

21

Defects in the SOX10 transcription factor is a major cause of _______________

Waardenburg syndrome

22

TATA box, CCAT box, and GC box are all examples of

general promoter sequences

23

diseases in transcription factors: the homeodomain transcription factor _______ is essential for embryonic heart development. loss of function of one copy of gene leads to congenital heart defects.

NKX2-5

24

homeodomain proteins have the _________ DNA binding domain.

helix-turn-helix

25

the general transcription factors in addition to the RNA polymerase 2 on the promoter region is called:

transcription initiation complex

26

a region of DNA close to the site of transcription that helps build the transcription initiation complex of proteins is called the:

promoter

27

the TATA box is the recognition sequence for a protein called _____, which bends the DNA to allow for transcription

TF2D

28

the protein alpha helix structure is a DNA _____ domain. It fits in the ______ groove of the DNA double helix. The binding is ______ (specific, non-specific)? Why?

binding
major

29

transcription of different genes in different types of cells is called: _____ ______

gene regulation

30

Any protein domain that can positively interact with the RNA polymerase complex will ___________ the preinitiation complex and ultimately ______ the levels of transcription.

stabilize
increase

31

zinc fingers can line up, with their ____ chains binding DNA. This increases __________

alpha
specificity