Acalculia, alexia, & agraphia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Acalculia, alexia, & agraphia Deck (63):
1

Alexia with hemianopsia & achromotopsia suggests a lesion in the

Dominant occipital-temporal area

1

Neuroanatomical correlate of phonological agraphia

Supramarginal gyrus or insula (assoc. w/ alexia) Perisylvian region (assoc. w/ aphasia)

1

Exner's area

Area just superior to Broca's believed to be associated with agraphia

2

What are the two general nosologies of agraphia?

Clinical neurology classification (aphasic & nonaphasic agraphias) Cognitive neuropsychological classification (phonological & lexical agraphia)

3

Derivational error

Reading, writing, or speaking error at the single word level in which the correct morpheme root is retained but differs in part of speech (e.g., 'confuse' for 'confusion')

4

Neuroanatomical correlate of alexia with agraphia

Dominant angular gyrus in the inferior parietal lobe

4

Spatial agraphia

Writing impairment due to spatial deficits that affect nonlinguistic aspects of writing

4

Attentional alexia

Characterized by relative preservation of single-word reading in context of gross disruption of reading when words are presented as text or in the presence of other words or letters

5

Alexia without agraphia is associated with what other conditions?

R HH, color naming disturbance

5

Visual-spatial agraphia (constructional agraphia) is characterized by

Reiteration of strokes Inability to complete a straight horizontal line Insertion of spaces between graphemes

6

Surface alexia is associated with lesions in the

L temporal lobe

8

Hans Berger's primary acalculia

Disturbance in performing calculations specifically

9

Allographic aphasia

Writing impairment associated with poor written production characterized by frequent omission errors w/ well-formed letter production (may reflect wrong letter); copying & oral spelling are spared

10

Neuroanatomical correlate of surface/lexical agraphia

Posterior angular gyrus & parieto-occipital lobule (assoc. w/ aphasia)

10

What other conditions are often associated with acalculia assoc. w/ alexia & agraphia for numbers?

Aphasia, verbal alexia, ideational & ideomotor apraxia, constructional deficits, somatognosia

11

Literal alexia is associated with a lesion in the

left frontal area

12

Phonological agraphia

Reflects impairment of sound-to-letter correspondences (nonlexical spelling route); markedly impaired spelling of nonwords & unfamiliar words but can spell words with which they are familiar

12

Peripheral vs. central dyslexias (Shallice & Warrington)

Peripheral - characterized by deficit in processing of visual aspects of stimulus, which prevents pt from reliably matching familiar word to stored form (e.g. alexia without agraphia) Central - impairment to deeper or higher reading functions by which visual word forms mediate access to meaning or speech production mechanisms

13

Semantic agraphia

Impaired ability to spell & write with meaning; may produce semantic jargon, spell semantically incorrect but correctly spelled dictated homophones; common finding in AD & semantic dementia

14

Hecaen's classifications (1961) of acalculia

1) Acalculia assoc. w/ alexia & agraphia for numbers 2) Acalculia of the spatial type 3) Anarithmetria

16

Neuroanatomical correlate of anarithmetria

Left-sided & bilateral brain disease; RH only if parietal lobe is involved

16

What other conditions are often associated with anarithmetria?

Aphasia, visuoconstructive deficits, general cognitive deterioration, verbal alexia, visual field defects

17

Alexia without agraphia is also known as

Posterior alexia

18

Hemi-alexia

Individual can read adequately in one visual field but not other; often seen when posterior CC is severed but both visual sensory areas remain intact

20

Alexia for arithmetical signs with preserved reading of #s is associated with what type of lesion?

Focal LH lesion in parietal or temporal-occipital areas

21

The origin of our current concept of alexia stems from case reports by _______

Dejerine

23

Inability to read or write #s is associated with a lesion in the

L parietal lobe

24

Ideational agraphia

Not apraxia agraphia because can hold pen, but difficulties with all the motor steps needed to write

24

Brain abnormalities associated with reading disorders

Symmetrical planum temporale, cortical malformations in frontal & temporal areas, reduced insular & frontal lobe volumes

25

Neuroanatomical correlate of alexia without agraphia

Dominant occipital lobe, involves white matter of posterior corpus callosum

26

Alexia with agraphia is also known as

Central alexia

27

Who coined the term 'akalkulia' in 1919?

Henschen

28

Phonological agraphia is often associated with what other disorders?

Aphasia, phonological alexia

29

What is the difference between alexia & dyslexia?

Alexia - acquired Dyslexia - congenital/early life

30

Agraphia in isolation is assocaited with a lesion in

Dominant superior or inferior parietal lobe or second frontal gyrus

32

Reiterative agraphia

Abnormal repetition of phrases, words, letters, etc. often seen with frontal lobe dementia

33

Hans Berger's secondary acalculia

Problems with calculations due to more general disturbances in memory, language, attention, etc.

33

Who was the first to publish a detailed report of a calculation disorder resulting from focal brain damage?

Stadelman (1908); the patient also had R HH

35

Alexia with agraphia is often accompanied by

Fluent aphasia, Gerstmann's syndrome, hemisensory loss, R visual field defect

37

Neuroanatomical correlate of acalculia of the spatial type

Post-Rolandic lesion of the RH

39

Neuroanatomical correlate of deep agraphia

Supramarginal gyrus or insula, far extending

40

Acalculia of the spatial type

Impaired spatial organization results in calculation problems due to misalignment of numbers, reversal of digits, inversions, & reversal errors

41

McCloskey & Caramazza's subclassification of number processing skills

Lexical processing - ability to read or write individual numbers Syntactic processing - ability to combine numbers into correct form & quantity

42

The origin of the concept of alexia is from case reports by

Dejerine (1890s)

44

Paralexia

Substitutions made when reading aloud

45

Phonological alexia (dyslexia)

An inability to make spelling-to-sound correspondence rules; results in visual paralexias - real words misread as visually similar words ('cat' for 'car'); better reading of high frequency words

47

Literal alexia

AKA frontal or anterior alexia; can read whole words but not recognize individual letters; associated with severe agraphia, poor copy with omissions, agrammatism, poor spelling

47

Dual-route model for spelling

Lexical: processes words holistically; cannot process unfamiliar or non-words Non-lexical: processes words on subword level, fragmenting them into phonological components; cannot correctly process irregular words

48

Deep agraphia

Trouble spelling nonwords, more trouble spelling function words than nouns, semantic paragraphic errors ("flight" instead of "propeller")

49

Alexia without agraphia (posterior alexia) is considered a disconnection syndrome because it disconnects ______ from _______

Visual info; language cortex

50

Anarithmetria

Deficits in performing the calculation itself

50

Mental graphia

Metaphorical term for the inability to put thoughts into written phrases

52

Surface alexia (dyslexia)

Grapheme-to-phoneme conversion disorder; can't read words with irregular orthography (e.g., 'tough' read as 'tug')

53

According to Neilson's model, what are the 3 forms of agraphia?

Aphasic, apretic (basically apraxic), isolated

55

Deep alexia (dyslexia)

Reading errors based on semantic (real word) substitutions for target words (semantic paralexias); substituted word may be paralexia, totally incorrect, or neologism; syntactic (functional) words are almost totally omitted

56

Optic agraphia

Inability to copy written or printed words while being capable of writing from dictation; associated with lesions in the posterior language-dominant hemisphere

57

Lexical agraphia is often associated with what other disorders?

Aphasia, alexia, Gerstmann syndrome

58

Lexical agraphia

Selective impairment of lexical (whole-word) spelling route that results in overreliance on spelling by sound-to-letter correspondence; inability to spell irregular words ('feign' becomes 'fane')

59

Alexia with agraphia is associated with a lesion in the

Inferior parietal lobe of LH, centering on angular gyrus

60

Primary acalculia is associated with lesions in

Dominant angular gyrus/inferior parietal lobe, dominant or nondominant perisylvian lesion

61

Gerstmann's syndrome

Agraphia, finger agnosia, L/R disorientation, alcalculia

62

Global alexia

Term used to indicate total loss of the ability to understand written or printed language; synonymous with central alexia but indicates total loss

63

Literal alexia is associated with what other conditions?

R HP, nonfluent aphasia, unilateral sensory/visual field neglect