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Flashcards in Adolescent Depression Deck (21)
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1

What percentage of adults diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder had a previous diagnosis before age 18? (Kim-Cohen et al, 2003)

75%

2

What is shy, fearful, and easily upset behaviour at age 3 predictive of?

Later depression, suicide attempts, and alcohol misuse

3

What is impulsive, restless, and distractible behaviour at age 3 predictive of?

Later conduct problems, depression, antisocial behaviour, suicide attempts, and alcohol misuse

4

What is the concordance rate of depression in monozygotic twins reared together and apart?

76% together, 67% apart

5

State some environmental risk factors for depression

Parental depression, family discord, maltreatment, peer victimisation, bereavement

6

Describe the change in depression incidence in males and females through puberty

Before puberty, incidence is the same in males and females. Between ages 11-13, incidence dramatically increases in females but only increases slightly in males. By 15, females are twice as likely to experience a major depressive episode

7

Give some potential explanations for the gender differences in depression incidence in adolescence

Hormones (testosterone affects social and affective information), rapid growth (change in body shape), circadian rhythm changes

8

Describe the changes in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence

Grey matter thinning, synaptic pruning, myelination

9

Describe the influence of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex on depression

Increased amygdala to prefrontal cortex connectivity is associated with an increase in adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts (Alarcon etal, 2019) - but positive parenting is protective, associated with decreased amygdala growth and increased cortical thinning (Whittle et al, 2013)

10

Describe the cognitive changes which occur during adolescence

Thoughts become more logical with more abstract reasoning
Greater consideration of consequences and ambiguity
Improved memory capacity, including autobiographical memory (sense of self across time)

11

Describe the emotional changes which occur during adolescence

Increased intensity of mood
Changes to self-regulation
Establishment of identity, including consideration of reputation amongst peers

12

Describe the social changes which occur during adolescence

Family shift towards autonomy and independence, questioning family rules and values
More importance attached to peer relationships
Romantic and sexual relationships
Increased experimentation (e.g. tobacco, alcohol, drugs)

13

How is adolescent depressive disorder differentiated from normal teenage angst?

It causes serious suffering and impairment, impacting on the individual, their family, their peers, and their education or work

14

What are the 3 main domains of depressive disorder?

Low mood and sadness, loss of enjoyment, and loss of energy

15

Give at least 3 differences between adolescent and adult major depressive disorder

1) Irritability instead of sadness or low mood (especially in boys)
2) Somatic complaints and social withdrawal more common
3) Psychotic symptoms rarer
4) Self-harm more common

16

Give 3 mental health disorders associated with adolescent depression

Anxiety disorder, eating disorders (especially in females), conduct disorders

17

What percentage of cases of adolescent depression reoccur in adulthood?

40-70%

18

What is the first-line treatment for adolescent depression?

Psychological therapy - either CBT, interpersonal psychotherapy, or psychodynamic psychotherapy

19

What is the most commonly prescribed SSRI for adolescent depression?

Fluoxetine

20

What percentage of deaths are due to suicide?

1%

21

Give 3 directions of research for adolescent depression

Exercise as therapy, treatment for neuroinflammation, therapies for the gut microbiome, pharmacogenetics, internet-based therapies