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Flashcards in Autism Deck (36)
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1

Define autism

A triad of impaired communication, impaired social interaction, and restricted, repetitive, stereotypic patterns of behaviour

2

What is the male to female ratio of autism?

4:1

3

Define autistic savant

An individual with autism and an above average IQ, typically with skills in a very isolated area

4

Describe the verbal impairments in autism

Speech delay, stereotyped and repetitive speech, lack of social usage of language (slang, colloquialisms)

5

Describe the non-verbal communication impairments in autism

Poor gesture, lack of creative play

6

Describe the impairments in social interaction in autism

Lack of reciprocity, missing of social-emotional cues, lack of theory of mind, literal and concrete understanding, failure to develop peer relationships, lack of shared enjoyment

7

Describe the behavioural abnormalities in autism

Unusual sensory interests, little imaginative play, stereotyped motor mannerisms (e.g. hand flapping, spinning), adherence to non-functional routines or rituals, unusual preoccupations or interests

8

Before what age must abnormalities be apparent for a diagnosis of childhood autism?

3

9

Describe some typical symptoms of childhood autism

Irrational fears or phobias, sleeping disturbances, eating disturbances, temper tantrums, aggression, self-injury

10

How is Asperger's syndrome differentiated from childhood autism?

No general delay or retardation in language or cognition

11

What percentage of individuals with autism have an identifiable medical cause?

6-10%

12

What is the concordance rate of autism in monozygotic twins?

36-60% severe, 90% mild

13

State an implicated genetic site in autism

2q, 7q32, 6q21, 15q11-13, 16p

14

In which population groups are rates of autism higher?

Children of engineers and children of South-East Asian immigrant mothers

15

Name at least 5 medical conditions which can cause autism

Tuberous sclerosis, fragile X, maternal rubella, neurofibromatosis, Herpes simplex encephalitis, Turner's syndrome, blindness, deafness, Down's syndrome, untreated phenylketonuria

16

Name at least 3 speculative causative environmental factors

Diet, pollutants, antibiotics, allergies, severe deprivation

17

Name 2 mental health disorders associated with autism

Anorexia nervosa and ADHD

18

In which sub-group of autistic patients is schizo-affective disorder more common than in the general population?

Fragile X autism

19

What percentage of autistic individuals have epileptic seizures before age 3?

20%

20

What percentage of autistic individuals develop epileptic seizures in adolescence?

15-20%

21

Why can deafness confound an autism diagnosis?

Hearing impaired children talk later and are less socially skilled, symptoms shared with autism - but autism is also more common in the deaf population, hypothesised due to an underlying neurological disorder causing both

22

State at least 5 autism-suggestive behaviours in infants

Feeding problems, dislike of physical contact, content to be alone (angel baby), not lifting arms to be lifted, not snuggling down when held, not gripping when being carried piggy-back, fascinating with lights or spinning, lack of curiosity, lack of social pointing and eye contact, delayed motor milestones, limited babbling

23

How do the 2011 NICE guidelines suggest autism is identified early?

Regular health visitor checks, hearing and vision tests, training professionals to recognise signs and symptoms

24

What is the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder? (Chakbarti & Frombonne, 2006)

116 per 100,000

25

What is the prevalence of childhood autism?

25 per 100,000

26

What percentage of the adult population has autism?

1.1%

27

Give 3 reasons why autism appears to be on the increase

Changes in diagnostic criteria, increasing awareness, recognition of associations (e.g. with hearing impairment and Down's syndrome), increased willingness to receive diagnosis (reduction in institutionalisation), increased benefits of diagnosis (development of specialist services)

28

Give some differentials for autism

Receptive language disorder, expressive language disorder, elective mutism, schizophrenia, disintegrative disorder

29

How can receptive-expressive language disorder patients be distinguished from autistic patients?

They exhibit reciprocal social behaviour and good eye contact

30

How can severe neglect mimic autism (as seen in the Romanian orphans?)

It produces language delay, abnormal social behaviour, and unusual habits and stereotypies - however once relationships are re-established, children start to show language comprehension and normal social reciprocity