Clinical Features of Schizophrenia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical Features of Schizophrenia Deck (50)
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1

Define psychosis

A loss of contact with reality - the presence of hallucinations, delusions, or a limited number of severe abnormalities of behaviour, such as gross excitement and overactivity, marked psychomotor retardation, and catatonic behaviour

2

Name the 2 main psychotic illnesses

Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

3

State the disorders encompassed by schizophrenia

Brief reaxtive psychosis, organic psychosis, delusional disorder, psychotic depression, schizoaffective disorder

4

Give the 3 main comorbidities of bipolar disorder

Anxiety, substance misuse, borderline personality disorder

5

Name the symptom domains of schizophrenia

Positive, negative, neurocognitive, disorganisation, affective dusturbance, disturbed behaviour, social cognition

6

Describe the neurocognitive symptoms of schizophrenia

Dysfunction in attention, memory, and executive function

7

Describe the positive symptoms of schizophrenia

Delusions, hallucinations

8

Describe the negative symptoms of schizophrenia

Affective flattening, alogia, avolition, anhedonia

9

Describe the disorganised symptoms of schizophrenia

Formal thought disorder

10

Describe the affective disturbance symptoms of schizophrenia

Suicidal ideation, hopelessness, excitement, hypomania

11

Describe the behavioural symptoms of schizophrenia

Social withdrawal, thought disturbance, anti-social behaviour, depressed behaviour

12

Describe the social cognition symptoms of schizophrenia

Impaired emotion processing, theory of mind, and social relationship perception

13

Name the 4 classic schizophrenia subtypes

Paranoid, hebephrenic, catatonic, simple

14

Describe paranoid schizophrenia

Characterised by persecutory or grandiose delusions and derogatory auditory hallucinations

15

Describe hebephrenic schizophrenia

A disorganisation syndrome, characterised by formal thought disorder, affective flattening, and bizarre behaviour

16

Describe catatonic schizophrenia

Multiple motor, volitional, and behavioural disorders, accompanied by stupor and excitement

17

Describe simple schizophrenia

Insidious but progressive impoverishment of mental life, without development of florid symptoms

18

Describe Crow's 1985 two-syndrome model of schizophrenia

Type 1 schizophrenia was an acute illness featuring positive symptoms - hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder - with a good response to medication and no intellectual impairment. Type 2 schizophrenia was a chronic illness featuring negative symptoms - affective flattening, speech poverty, loss of drive - with a poor response to medication and some intellectual impairment

19

State the problems with the four-subtype model of schizophrenia

The subtypes are temporally unstable, overlapping, and of questionable validity and clinical relevance

20

Name the 3 schizophrenia syndromes proposed by Liddle & Barnes in 1990

Psychomotor poverty, disorganisation syndrome, reality distortion

21

Describe the psychomotor poverty subtype defined by Liddle in 1990

Poverty of speech, decreased spontaneous movement, unchanging facial expressure, affective non-response, lack of vocal inflections

22

Describe the disorganisation syndrome subtype defined by Liddle in 1990

Inappropriate affect, poverty of content of speech, tangentiality, derailment, distractibility

23

Describe the reality distortion subtype defined by Liddle in 1990

Auditory hallucinations, delusions of persecution, delusions of reference

24

When is the typical onset of schizophrenia?

Middle to late adolescence, with age of onset often earlier in males (Castle et al, 1998)

25

Describe the typical initial symptoms of schizophrenia

Change in personality, decrease in academic, social, and interpersonal functioning

26

What is the male to female ratio of schizophrenia?

1.4:1

27

Which physical health problems are more common in schizophrenia?

Diabetes mellitus (due to schizophrenia and the effects of antipsychotics), cardiovascular disease

28

Why is the risk of cardiovascular disease increased in schizophrenia?

HPA and mitochondrial dysfunction, peripheral and CNS inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress, common genetic links, epigenetic interactions

29

State some reasons why schizophrenia increased morbidity and mortality

Lack of access to and uptake of preventative care, social deprivation, under-diagnosis and treatment of physical illness, poor compliance with medical treatment, unhealthy lifestyle (higher incidence of smoking and substance use), sleep and circadian disorders

30

Name 3 genes associated with schizophrenia

Neuregulin 1, dysbindin, disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1)