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Flashcards in Emotional and Psychological Development Deck (35)
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1

State the main 4 developmental domains

Emotional, cognitive, social, physical

2

State the social and emotional milestones between birth and 3 months of age

Smiles in response to interaction, comforted by a familial adult

3

State the social and emotional milestones between 3 and 6 months of age

Initiates interaction, smiles spontaneously, plays peek-a-boo

4

State the social and emotional milestones between 6 and 9 months of age

Differentiates emotions, distinguishes friends and strangers, prefers familiar people

5

State the social and emotional milestones between 9 and 12 months of age

Separation anxiety, imitation, self-regulation

6

State the social and emotional milestones between 1 and 2 years of age

Sense of self develops, assertive, directs others, pride and pleasure with accomplishments

7

State the social and emotional milestones between 2 and 3 years of age

Explores more, self-help skills, sees self as good or bad, aware of own feelings as separate to others

8

Describe the brain development in a child's first 3 years of life

The brain doubles in size in their first year - by age 3, it has reached 80% of its adult volume. The sensorimotor cortex develops rapidly from birth, with other areas developing more slowly with synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning

9

When does the prefrontal cortex finish developing?

Adolescence

10

Define emotions

Feelings or states of mind generated from interaction with internal biochemical and external environmental factors, with either positive or negative valence

11

Name the 6 basic emotions which develop in the first year of life

Happiness, sadness, disgust, anger, surprise, fear

12

Name the 3 basic emotions which develop in the first 3 months of life

Happiness, sadness, disgust

13

Name the 3 additional emotions which develop after 1-2 years of life

Empathy, jealousy, embarrassment

14

Name the 3 additional emotions which develop after 2-2.5 years of life

Pride, shame, guilt

15

Describe the function of early emotions

To communicate the baby's needs and to engage in interactions with others, in order to understand the emotions of others

16

Define temperament

Simple, non-motivational, non-cognitive, stylisyic characteristics present from birth that represent meaningful ways of describing individual differences and affect how a young child acts and responds to different situations and individuals

17

How does personality develop from temperament?

It is based on temperament, but modified by interactions and the child's self-worth and self-concept

18

State the 3 clusters of temperament proposed by Thomas & Chess in the 1950s

Difficult cluster, easy cluster, slow-to-warm-up cluster

19

State the 2 clusters of temperament proposed by Kagan in the 1970s

Inhibited (highly reactive) and uninhibited (low reactive)

20

Describe the consistency between temperament in childhood and personality in adolescence

Temperamental characteristics in the first 2 years have a low correlation with comparable characteristics in adolescence, however there is a great correlation between the early school years and adolescence, with consistency greater for extreme characteristics

21

Name 2 relevant genes in the heritability of temperament

Dopamine receptor gene and serotonin receptor gene

22

Describe the implications of a difficult temperament for psychopathology

Difficult temperament is associated with higher rates of accidents, sleep difficulties, infantile colic, behavioural deviance at school, and confrontational responses from others (including parental criticism)

23

Define attachment

The emotional bond between a child and caregiver

24

Describe Bowlby's theory of attachment

Children need their primary caregivers to be a secure base for exploration and a haven for protection. Their perception of their caregiver forms the basis of their internal working models of their own self, the caregiver, and others. These working models influence interpersonal behaviour

25

Describe Ainsworth's strange situation procedure

A child is observed playing with caregiver supervision. A stranger enters and interacts with the caregiver and then the child. The caregiver leaves and the baby's reaction is observed. After a short while, the caregiver returns and the baby's reaction is observed again

26

Name the four types of attachment seen in the strange situation procedure

Secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant, and disorganised

27

Describe secure attachment seen in the strange situation procedure

The infant engages in positive exploration. They are upset by separation but respond positively to the caregiver on reunion and return rapidly to exploration

28

Describe insecure-avoidant attachment seen in the strange situation procedure

The infant is detached upon separation, avoids the parent on reunion, and engages in displacement exploration that is devoid of true interest

29

Describe insecure-resistant attachment seen in the strange situation procedure

The infant is preoccupied with their caregiver's availability. They show distress on separation but anger or ambivalence on reunion and are difficult to comfort

30

In which group of infants is disorganised attachment more common?

Those exposed to situations of high psychosocial risk, e.g. domestic violence or abuse