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Flashcards in Affective Disorders Deck (45)
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1

Define affective disorder

A fundamental disturbance in affect or mood to depression (with or without associated anxiety) or elation, usually accompanied by a change in the overall level of activity

2

State the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder

Feelings of depression and/ or decreased interest or pleasure in previously enjoyable things, plus at least 4 of: feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fatigue, weight or appetite changes, sleep changes, psychomotor changes, loss of concentration or ability to think, recurrent thoughts of death or suicide

3

How is depression often different in children and adolescents?

It may appear without low mood, instead causing an irritable affect

4

Describe the symptoms of a depressive phase of bipolar disorder

Low mood and loss of enjoyment, loss of interest in daily activities, sleep changes, appetite changes, loss of concentration, mental and physical slowing, feelings of emptiness or worthlessness, self-doubt, suicidal thoughts

5

Describe the symptoms of a hypomanic phase of bipolar disorder

Constant elation or euphoria, hyperactivity, irritable mood, increased energy, inappropriate optimism, overestimating personal ability, poor judgement, grandiose plans, speeding up of thought and speech, need for little sleep

6

Describe the difference between bipolar 1 and bipolar 2

Bipolar 1: Large swings between hypomania and depression
Bipolar 2: Predominant depression

7

According to Judd et al's 2002 study, how much of the time are bipolar patients symptom-free?

50%

8

What is the most common comorbid diagnosis with bipolar disorder?

Anxiety disorder

9

What is the prevalence of generalised anxiety disorder in patients with bipolar disorder?

42.4%

10

What is the prevalence of social anxiety disorder in patients with bipolar disorder?

47.1%

11

What is the lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorder in patients with bipolar disorder?

93%

12

What is the lifetime prevalence of alcohol dependence in patients with bipolar disorder?

61.2%

13

Describe Beck's cognitive model of depression

A triad of negative thoughts, low mood, and reduced behaviour, all of which influence each other and create a self-perpetuating cycle

14

Describe three areas which experience cognitive distortion in depression

Attention, memory, emotional information processing

15

Define emotional information processing

A series of processes involving attentional, perceptual, appraisal, and response preparation operations occuring in an individual during salient internal and external events and impacting on the experience of and response to those events

16

State the three main components of attention

Allocating (deciding to focus on something)
Maintaining
Shifting (choosing to focus on something else)

17

How does an emotional bias affect attention?

It means that emotional stimuli are more likely to disrupt the maintenance of attention on a task

18

State at least 2 ways of measuring attention bias

Stroop test, faces-houses task, dot probe task

19

Which area of attention is affected by depression?

Shifting attention - it is hard for depressed individuals to disengage from negative material

20

Which are of the brain appears to mediate negative attention biases?

Perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (in the prefrontal cortex)

21

Describe the neurofunctional abnormalities associated with attention bias in depression

More sustained amygdala response to negative stimuli and increased activation of the lateral inferior frontal cortex

22

What is implicit memory involved in?

Priming and associations

23

What is explicit memory involved in?

Recognition and recall

24

Describe the memory bias associated with depression (Matthews & MacLeod, 2005)

Individuals with depression have preferential recall of negative material compared to positive material

25

Which trait predisposes individuals to depression?

Neuroticism

26

Describe the neurofunctional abnormality associated with memory bias in depression (Hamilton & Gotlib, 2008)

Depressed patients show a great amygdala respinse and enhanced amygdala-hippocampal connectivity when remembering negative pictures

27

Describe the perception biases in facial expression recognition associated with depression

Depressed individuals have increased recognition of negative faces and decreased recognition of positive faces

28

Which task is used to test facial expression recognition?

Harmer facial expression recognition task

29

Describe the neurofunctional abnormality associated with facial expression recognition bias in depression

Individuals with depression have an enhanced amygdala response to seeing negative faces (Fu et al, 2004), even when the faces are shown too quickly for conscious awareness (Suslow et al, 2010)

30

State at least 4 voluntary emotion regulation strategies

Emotion suppression, rumination, catastrophising, worry, cognitive reappraisal, self-disclosure, autobiographical memories, positive prospection