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1

Gambling: Petry, 2015

Pathological gamblers have decreased ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatal activity (decision-making areas) than healthy controls

2

Gambling: Loraines et al, 2011

Pathological gambling comorbidities include substance abuse 57.5%, mood disorders 37.9%, anxiety disorders 37.4%, antisocial personality disorder 28.8%

3

Gambling: Lahti et al, 2010; Ward et al, 2018

Naltrexone decreases relapse in abstinent pathological gamblers

4

Drugs: King et al, 2008

Deaths per million users: 20k heroin, 170 cocaine, 70 amphetamine, 50 MDMA, 5 cannabis

5

Drugs: Gore et al, The Lancet, 2011

Alcohol is the biggest global cause of disability in 15-24 year olds

6

Drugs: Hickman et al, 2007

Cannabis use increased 20x in last 40 years

7

Drugs: Kohn et al, 2004

<10% of patients with alcohol dependence are treated, 92% don't present

8

Drugs: Heather et al, 2010

Only 50% of alcoholics want to be abstinent

9

Drugs: NICE, 2011

One quarter of the UK consumed alcohol in a harmful way and 5% are dependent

10

Drugs: Obernier et al, 2002

Alcohol activates microglia, with activated microglia present for 14 days after last dose in alcohol-dependent rats

11

Drugs: He and Crews, 2008

Post-mortem, the brains of alcoholics have more microglia and inflammatory cytokines in their cingulate cortex, midbrain, VTA, and amygdala than non-alcoholics

12

Drugs: Weaver et al, 2003

75% of addicts have a co-morbid mental health condition - 26% major depression, 8% psychosis

13

PTSD: Kessler et al, 1995

Lifetime PTSD prevalence 8%

14

PTSD: Yehuda et al, 1991

PTSD associated with impaired HPA axis sensitivity and decreased hippocampal volume

15

ARFID: Bryant-Waugh et al, 2010

3 ARFID subtypes - restricted, phobic, sensory

16

ARFID: Katzman et al, 2014

63% of Canadian paediatricians surveyed in Canada unaware of ARFID as a diagnosis

17

Eating disorders: Smink et al, 2016

During adolescence, anorexia incidence 26.7 per 100k (50 in girls) and bulimia incidence 25.8 per 100k (50 in girls)

18

Eating disorders: Hunger et al, 2018

Being labelled as fat aged 14 increases unhealthy weight control behaviours and disordered eating over next 5 years, regardless of original BMI

19

Eating disorders: Patton et al, 1999

Dieting increases eating disorder risk 18x

20

CAMH: Kim-Cohen et al, 2003

75% of adults with a mental health diagnosis had a previous MH diagnosis under 18

21

CAMH: Hankin et al, 1998

Depression incidence pre-puberty equal in boys and girls, at puberty increases in both but more in girls, by 15 incidence 2x greater in girls

22

CAMH: Gore et al, The Lancet, 2011

45% of the worldwide disease and disability in young people can be attributed to depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol abuse

23

Conduct disorder: Meltzer et al, 2000

Conduct disorder prevalence 4% in 5-10y/o, 6% in 10-15y/o

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Conduct disorder: Scott et al, 2001

Children with conduct disorder cost society 10x as much as children without it

25

Conduct disorder: Jusyte et al, 2019

Childhood conduct disorder associated with rule-breaking even in the absence of gain

26

Conduct disorder: Biederman, 2005

ADHD comorbid with conduct disorder in 30-50% of cases

27

ODD: Demmer et al, 2017

ODD M:F ratio 1.6:1

28

ADHD: Neumann, 2007

Smoking during pregnancy increases ADHD risk in offspring 9x only in presence of DAT1 transporter risk allele

29

ADHD: Demontis et al, 2018

GWAS implicated genetic loci include those for tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine receptors D2,D3,D5, COMT, nicotinic receptors, and SNAP-25

30

ADHD: Jahad et al, 2000

Medication (methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, atomoxetine) efficacious for ADHD but efficacy decreases over time