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Flashcards in Novel Psychoactive Substances Deck (25)
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1

State 4 categories of drugs (by psychoactive effect)

Stimulants, sedatives, hallucinogens, dissociatives

2

Name at least 2 stimulants

Cocaine, amphetamine, mephedrone, ecstasy

3

Name at least 2 sedatives

Cannabis, alcohol, heroin, codeine phosphate, nitrous oxide, diazepam

4

Name 2 hallucinogens

LSD, ecstasy

5

Name 2 dissociatives

Ketamine, nitrous oxide

6

What percentage of young people below 25 in the UK have used an illicit drug in the past year?

19.2%

7

What is mephedrone?

A synthetic stimulant (cathinone) with amphetamine-like effects

8

State some 'club drugs'

Ketamine, GHB, MDMA, mephedrone, methamphetamine

9

State at least 4 different populations who used novel psychoactive substances while they were legal

Long-term heroin users, students and club-goers, gay men, young professionals (lawyers, doctors), psychonauts, prisoners

10

Why can mobile phone use trigger relapse in ex-novel psychoactive substance addicts?

Unlike traditional drugs, these are mainly sold via social media and on the internet

11

State at least 2 novel harms of novel psychoactive substances

Ketamine bladder, hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, psychosis

12

Which drugs cause psychosis?

Synthetic cannabinoids

13

Describe ketamine bladder

irritation of the inside lining of the bladder, leading to polyuria, dysuria, and haematuria

14

Describe hallucinogen persisting perception disorder

Users of hallucinogens experiencing ongoing distortions and hallucinations including 'visual snow', afterimages, auras, micropsia, macropsia, and brain fog

15

In what year did the synthesis of novel psychoactive substances peak?

2014

16

Why are synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) more dangerous than cannabis?

They are much more potent CB1 receptor agonists, undetectable on standard urine drug testing (so healthcare workers don't know the dose or even specific drug to treat), and non-specific - targeting multiple receptors beyond CB1.

17

When was the UK Psychoactive Substances Act introduced?

2016

18

Give some potential reasons for the downturn in synthesis of novel psychoactive substances

Psychoactive Substances Act stopping the need for new development, loss of interest, coalescing of the market around existing drugs, response of the illicit drug market

19

How did the illicit drug market respond to the popularity of novel psychoactive substances?

Increasing the purity of cocaine and MDMA

20

State the 2 main types of novel psychoactive sedatives

Opioid novel psychoactive substances (fentanyl analogues) and benzodiazepine novel psychoactive substances

21

Name a fentanyl analogue

Carfentanyl

22

What percentage of traditional drugs and novel psychoactive substances respectively are obtained from the internet?

Traditional: 1%
NPS: 37%

23

What is the UK system for reporting illicit drug reactions?

RIDR

24

State at least 2 challenges illustrated by novel psychoactive substances

Dynamic and unpredictable drug market, monitoring is difficult and lags behind trends, building an evidence base takes time, NPS may be outdated as a concept, MDT response

25

State at least 2 new developments because of novel psychoactive substances

More sophisticated drug monitoring systems, legal and enforcement frameworks, new technology (e.g. gas chromatography techniques for drug testing)