Flashcards in Intelligence and Intellectual Disability Deck (50)
The ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, and learn from experience - the mental abilities necessary for adaptation to, as well as selection and shaping of, any environmental context
What is the intelligence quotient (IQ)?
Mean age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100
State the domains of IQ on the Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS)
Verbal comprehension index and working memory index (verbal IQ) plus perceptual organisation index and processing speed index (performance IQ)
State some environmental factors influencing intelligence
Foetal growth, intrauterine infections, birth complications, quality of childhood care, quality of school. peer group, socioeconomic deprivation
Describe the evidence for environmental factors from adoption studies
A child reared in a socially advantaged adoptive family will have a higher IQ than a comparable child reared in a socially disadvantaged family
State the monozygotic twin concordance for intelligence when reared together and apart
State the sibling concordance for intelligence when reared together and apart
State the IQ range of an individual with mild intellectual disability
State the IQ range of an individual with moderate intellectual disability
State the IQ range of an individual with severe intellectual disability
State the IQ range of an individual with profound intellectual disability
What might an individual with mild intellectual disability be able to attain by adulthood?
Self-help skills and good speech are definitely attainable. Literacy and semi-skilled work should also be attainable.
What might an individual with moderate intellectual disability be able to attain by adulthood?
Self-help skills, domestic speech, and unskilled work - possibly with supervision - should be attainable. Literacy is sometimes attainable.
What might an individual with severe intellectual disability be able to attain by adulthood?
Assisted self-help skills, minimum speech, and assisted ability to do household chores
What might an individual with profound intellectual disability be able to attain by adulthood?
Some individuals will obtain speech and self-help skills
Below what IQ does intellectual disability definitely have a pathological cause?
What percentage of individuals with mild and severe learning disabilities respectively are male?
What percentage of individuals with mild and severe learning disabilities respectively have a concurrent major CNS disorder?
Name at least 5 prenatal conditions associated with intellectual disability
Down's syndrome, fragile X, tuberous sclerosis, William's syndrome, neurofibromatosis, inborn errors of metabolism (phenylketonuria, galactosaemia), cereberal palsy, IU infections, IU toxins
Name 2 perinatal conditions associated with intellectual disability
Neonatal jaundice, obstetric complications
Name 2 post-natal conditions associated with intellectual disability
What is involved in managing intellectual disability?
Early detection, parental genetic counselling and support, early treatment if applicable (e.g. for IEOM), management of comorbid physical disorders (e.g. epilepsy), helping parents manage challenging behaviours, treating comorbid psychiatric disorders, education (special schools or mainstream with support)
State at least 5 physical features of Down syndrome
Small head, round face, epicanthic folds, large fissured tongue, low-set ears, short stature, cardiac malformations, GI malformations, single palmar crease, incurved little finger, inc. risk deafness, inc. risk visual problems, inc. risk AD
State the incidence of Down syndrome
1 in 600 births
What is the biggest risk factor for Down syndrome?
An older mother
What percentage of intellectual disability cases are due to Down syndrome?
What is the typical IQ of an individual with Down syndrome?
Name the 3 genetic causes of Down syndrome
Extra copy of chromosome 21 (95% of cases), translocations (4%), mosaics (1%)
Name a mental health disorder which individuals with Down syndrome are at risk of in adolescence