Ageing and Frailty Flashcards Preview

MD1 Neuroscience > Ageing and Frailty > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ageing and Frailty Deck (25):
1

Why are more people living to later life?

Mostly because of social engineering
Medicine helped in
- Childbirth
- Perinatal health
- Immunisations

2

For how long do people tend to have severe disability and high utilisation of services?

2-3 yrs before death, no matter what age you die at

3

What is compression of morbidity?

Decreasing disability before death

4

Define ageing

Total of all changes an organism undergoes from conception to death

5

What is cellular senescence?

Cells lose ability to divide

6

What do cells do in response to DNA damage, including shortened telomeres?

Senesce
Apoptose

7

What is organismal senescence?

Ageing of whole organism

8

What is the physiology of ageing?

Decline due to normal ageing
Exaggerated/accelerated by disease and deconditioning
Decreased reserve to respond to challenges

9

Do all body parts age at the same rate?

No

10

What is deconditioning?

Decreased physical activity

11

What is successful ageing?

Changes due solely to ageing process, unaffected by disease, environmental, or lifestyle factors

12

What is usual ageing?

Changes associated with combined effects of ageing process, disease, and adverse environment and lifestyle factors

13

What is frailty?

Multi-system dysregulations > loss of dynamic homeostasis, decreased physiological reserve, and increased vulnerability for subsequent morbidity and mortality

14

What is frailty associated with?

Low-grade, chronic activation of immune system with abnormalities of endocrine and coagulation systems

15

What is the phenotype model of frailty?

Group of patient characteristics which if present can predict poorer outcomes

16

What is the deficit model of frailty?

Accumulation of deficits that can occur with ageing > combine to increase frailty index > increases risk of adverse outcome

17

What are the characteristics of frailty in the phenotype model?

Unintentional weight loss
Weakness
Exhaustion
Slow walking speed
Low physical activity

18

What is the classification system of frailty in the phenotype model?

Pre-frail = have 1-2 criteria
Frail = have 3+ criteria

19

What is the Canadian clinical frailty scale?

Measure of deficit model of frailty
70 item index of accumulated deficits
Strong correlation with need for institutional care and mortality
Spectrum: independence to complete dependence
Gold standard but more research than clinical tool

20

What is sarcopenia?

Loss of muscle mass and strength

21

When does sarcopenia happen?

Starts after 50 but more rapid after 60

22

What accelerates sarcopenia?

Chronic disease

23

What contributes to sarcopenia?

Changes in alpha motor neurons
Type 2 muscle fibre loss
Muscular atrophy
Poor nutrition
Low physical activity
Decreased GH
Decreased sex steroid levels

24

What are some potential interventions for frailty?

Exercise
Nutritional support
Pharmacology?

25

What are some examples of geriatric syndromes?

Falls
Incontinence
Delirium
Pressure ulcers
Functional decline

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