Disorders of Language Flashcards Preview

MD1 Neuroscience > Disorders of Language > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disorders of Language Deck (36):
1

Define aphasia?

Disturbance in language as result of brain damage

2

What is the difference between language and speech disorders?

Speech disorders happen because of sensory and/or motor problems

3

What are some causes of acute onset aphasia?

Strok
Penetrating head injury
Surgical resection

4

What are some causes of insidious onset aphasia?

Dementia
Neoplastic change

5

What is the time course of insidious onset aphasias?

Progressive

6

What are some causes of paroxysmal aphasia?

Focal seizure if activity spreads to language cortices
Migraine

7

What is the time course of paroxysmal aphasias?

Episodic
Present same way each time

8

What are the corresponding Broddman's areas of Broca's area?

44 and 45

9

What is the hemispheric dominance in terms of language?

Right hemisphere for visuospatial function
Left hemisphere for language

10

What proportion of right and left handers have left lateralised language?

95% of right handers
70% of left handers

11

What might be the role of the right hemisphere in language?

Non-propositional speech
Prosody
Paralinguistic aspects

12

What are the divisions of the middle cerebral artery?

Superior
Inferior

13

What does the superior division of the middle cerebral artery supply?

Sensorimotor cortex
Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

14

What does the inferior division of the middle cerebral artery supply?

Temperoparietal cortex
Visual tracts

15

What is the clinical significance of the relationship between which branch of the middle cerebral artery is affected and language?

Language disturbances depend on which branch is affected

16

Define language production

Producing appropriate output sequences

17

Define language selection

Choosing appropriate content

18

What part of language is affected in non-fluent language disorders?

Production

19

What part of language is affected in fluent language disorders?

Selection

20

Describe non-fluent aphasias

Anterior lesion
Loss of grammatical (sequential) structure
Intact selection of content
Eg: Broca's aphasia

21

Describe fluent aphasias

Posterior lesion
Impaired selection of content
Intact grammatical (sequential) structure
Eg: Wernicke's aphasia

22

Which division of the middle cerebral artery is affected in Broca's aphasia?

Affects Broca's area > superior division

23

Which division of the middle cerebral artery is affected in Wernicke's aphasia?

Affects Wernicke's area > inferior division

24

What is the function of the arcuate fasciculus?

Join's Broca's and Wernicke's areas
Joins Wernicke's area to premotor cortex

25

What does the dorsal language stream map?

Sound

26

What does the ventral language stream map?

Sound to meaning

27

What does damage to white matter tracts involved in the language system produce?

Very specific language disorders
Shows importance of systems rather than isolated areas

28

Describe Wernicke's aphasia

Fluent jargonistic language output
- Neologisms
- Paraphasic errors - phonemic and semantic
Impaired comprehension
Right quadrantanopsia
No motor weakness
Affects written language too
Often don't know that they don't make sense

29

What does an exam of language measure?

Output
Comprehension: easy > hard
Ability to follow instructions
Repetition

30

Describe Broca's aphasia

Non-fluent, highly effortful language output
Telegrammatic
Preserved comprehension
Right face and arm weakness
Written language a little better than with Wernicke's area
Usually good insight into their issues

31

Describe conduction aphasia

Fluent aphasia, but more meaningful than Wernicke's
Relatively intact basic auditory comprehension
Poor repetition of words

32

Describe transcortical motor aphasia

Non-fluent aphasia
Muteness at most severe - lack motivation and effort to talk
Repetition preserved

33

What does ipsilateral versus contralateral transfer after recovery depend on?

Many factors, including
- Age
- Stage of recovery
- Size and location of lesion

34

On what side will recovery happen if you are young?

Younger the person, more likely of contralateral functional switch

35

Describe the way the roles of the two hemispheres change over time in adults, post-stroke

Controls
- Left = a lot of activity
- Right = a little activity
Acute
- Left = very little activity
- Right = no activity
Subacute
- Left = a lot of activity
- Right = a lot of activity > maybe to support other hemisphere
Chronic
- Left = a lot of activity
- Right = moderate activity

36

What is the relationship between the size of the lesion and which side recovery happens on?

Larger lesions may mean more contralateral reorganisation

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