Flashcards in Introduction to Cognition and Emotion Deck (32):
What is sensation?
Sensori-neural encoding of incoming physical information
What is perception?
Transforming and interpreting sensory information to construct meaningful percepts
Can higher level cognition impact back down on sensation?
What does cognition mean when used in cognitive science and neuroscience?
Broad term of information processing
Application of knowledge
What does cognition mean when used in social and clinical psychology?
What are some examples of cognitive processes?
Speed of information processing
What is the localisation of function model?
Structure-function relationship one to one
Cognition breaks down in specific ways when brain damaged
Broadly, what is the frontal lobe important in?
Execution and regulation of behaviour
Broadly, what is the temporal lobe important in?
Broadly, what is the parietal lobe important in?
Somatic and visuospatial representations
Broadly, what is the occipital lobe important in?
What is an example of lateralisation of function?
Left hemisphere specialisation for language
Right hemisphere specialisation for visuospatial functioning
- 95% of right handers and 70% of left handers have left dominant language
What is the drawback of the lateralisation of function model?
Oversimplification of complex phenomenon
What are the three basic units of the CNS, according to Luria's brain-behaviour theory?
Regulation of arousal and muscle tone
- Brainstem and associated areas
Reception, integration, and analysis of sensory information
- Posterior cortical regions
Planning, executing, and verifying behaviour
- Frontal and prefrontal lobes
What are the three posterior cortical zones according to Luria?
What is the function of the primary cortical zone?
High modal specificity
Predominant afferent layer IV
Eg: knock out primary visual cortex > cortically blind
What is the function of the secondary cortical zone?
Decreased modal specificity
Predominant layers II and III
Eg: knockout secondary zone > agnosia = disorders of perception
What is the function of tertiary cortical zones?
Integrate across sense modalities
Supramodal - association cortex
Predominant upper cortical layers
Mature by ~7 years of age
Only evident in humans
Eg: problems here > can't access knowledge
What is the primary cortical zone anteriorly?
Motor cortex (M1)
Execution of movement
What is the secondary cortical zone anteriorly?
Organisation of movement
What is the tertiary cortical zone anteriorly?
Planning goal-directed activities
Intent and behaviour programming
Self-monitoring and regulation
Most developed in humans
Matures in adolescence
What is the concept of pluripotentiality?
Cognition is a network
1) Each area of brain opperates in conjunction with other areas
2) No area is singly responsible for voluntary human behaviour
3) Each area may play a specific role in many behaviours
How is emotion defined?
Conscious, subjective feeling > internal
Infer affect from others based on behaviour
What are the components of emotion as a psychophysiological state?
Incorporates conscious feelings
Which core emotions are culturally universal?
What do complex emotions involve?
Different combinations of core emotions
What is the limbic system?
Theoretical system believed to be involved in emotion
- Septal area
- Nucleus accumbens
- Orbitofrontal cortex
What is the amygdala involved in?
Implicit emotional learning
What is amygdala dysfunction related to?
Depression and anxiety
What is the orbitofrontal cortex involved in?
ID and expression of emotion
How is the hippocampus linked to affective disorders?
Hippocampal volume reduction in depression
Links serotonin abnormalities and stress hypotheses of depression