Introduction to Cognition and Emotion Flashcards Preview

MD1 Neuroscience > Introduction to Cognition and Emotion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Cognition and Emotion Deck (32):
1

What is sensation?

Sensori-neural encoding of incoming physical information

2

What is perception?

Transforming and interpreting sensory information to construct meaningful percepts

3

Can higher level cognition impact back down on sensation?

Yes

4

What does cognition mean when used in cognitive science and neuroscience?

Broad term of information processing
Application of knowledge

5

What does cognition mean when used in social and clinical psychology?

Thoughts
Internal dialogue

6

What are some examples of cognitive processes?

Memory
Speed of information processing
Language
Planning
Problem solving
Attention

7

What is the localisation of function model?

Structure-function relationship one to one
Cognition breaks down in specific ways when brain damaged

8

Broadly, what is the frontal lobe important in?

Planning
Execution and regulation of behaviour
Language

9

Broadly, what is the temporal lobe important in?

Audition
Language
Music
Memory
Emotion

10

Broadly, what is the parietal lobe important in?

Somatic and visuospatial representations

11

Broadly, what is the occipital lobe important in?

Vision

12

What is an example of lateralisation of function?

Left hemisphere specialisation for language
Right hemisphere specialisation for visuospatial functioning
- 95% of right handers and 70% of left handers have left dominant language

13

What is the drawback of the lateralisation of function model?

Oversimplification of complex phenomenon

14

What are the three basic units of the CNS, according to Luria's brain-behaviour theory?

Regulation of arousal and muscle tone
- Brainstem and associated areas
Reception, integration, and analysis of sensory information
- Posterior cortical regions
Planning, executing, and verifying behaviour
- Frontal and prefrontal lobes

15

What are the three posterior cortical zones according to Luria?

Primary
Secondary
Tertiary

16

What is the function of the primary cortical zone?

High modal specificity
Topological organisation
Predominant afferent layer IV
Eg: knock out primary visual cortex > cortically blind

17

What is the function of the secondary cortical zone?

Perception
Decreased modal specificity
Predominant layers II and III
Eg: knockout secondary zone > agnosia = disorders of perception

18

What is the function of tertiary cortical zones?

Integrate across sense modalities
Supramodal - association cortex
Predominant upper cortical layers
Mature by ~7 years of age
Only evident in humans
Eg: problems here > can't access knowledge

19

What is the primary cortical zone anteriorly?

Motor cortex (M1)
Topological organisation
Execution of movement

20

What is the secondary cortical zone anteriorly?

Premotor cortex
Organisation of movement

21

What is the tertiary cortical zone anteriorly?

Prefrontal cortex
Planning goal-directed activities
Intent and behaviour programming
Self-monitoring and regulation
Cortical alertness
Most developed in humans
Matures in adolescence

22

What is the concept of pluripotentiality?

Cognition is a network
1) Each area of brain opperates in conjunction with other areas
2) No area is singly responsible for voluntary human behaviour
3) Each area may play a specific role in many behaviours

23

How is emotion defined?

Conscious, subjective feeling > internal
Infer affect from others based on behaviour

24

What are the components of emotion as a psychophysiological state?

Incorporates conscious feelings
Physiological arousal
Cognitive component

25

Which core emotions are culturally universal?

Anger
Fear
Sadness
Disgust
Happiness

26

What do complex emotions involve?

Different combinations of core emotions

27

What is the limbic system?

Theoretical system believed to be involved in emotion
- Amygdala
- Septal area
- Nucleus accumbens
- Orbitofrontal cortex

28

What is the amygdala involved in?

Implicit emotional learning

29

What is amygdala dysfunction related to?

Depression and anxiety

30

What is the orbitofrontal cortex involved in?

ID and expression of emotion

31

How is the hippocampus linked to affective disorders?

Hippocampal volume reduction in depression
Links serotonin abnormalities and stress hypotheses of depression

32

What does the Cannon Bard theory of emotion state?

Can experience emotion without expressing it physically; eg: in case of spinal cord lesions
Physiological changes aren't unique to specific emotions

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