Oral Cavity and Oropharynx (ENT 3) Flashcards Preview

MD1 Neuroscience > Oral Cavity and Oropharynx (ENT 3) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oral Cavity and Oropharynx (ENT 3) Deck (94):
1

What makes up the roof of the mouth?

Horizontal parts of maxilla and palatine bone = hard palate
Palatine process attaches to alveolar/dental arch
Soft palate hangs off back of hard palate

2

What is the soft palate?

Muscular flap
Forms posterior part of roof of mouth

3

What is the midline projection of the soft palate?

Uvula

4

What forms the floor of the mouth?

Mandible
Diaphragm of muscle bridging entire inferior space

5

What are the muscles in the floor of the mouth?

Mylohyoid
Digastric
Geniohyoid

6

Where does the mylohyoid muscle attach?

Hyoid bone
Posterior aspect of mandible

7

What wraps around the free edge of the mylohyoid muscle?

One of salivary glands

8

What is superior to the mylohyoid musclee?

Geniohyoid

9

What is inferior to the mylohyoid muscl?

Digastric

10

What holds the tongue in the mouth?

Diaphragm muscles of floor of mouth

11

What divides the tongue into a posterior third and anterior two-thirds?

V shaped groove = sulcus terminalis

12

In which direction is the sulcus terminalis orientated?

Apex of V directed posteriorly

13

What is the foramen caecum?

Depression at apex of sulcus terminalis
Where thyroid as outpouching of tongue developed and moved down in neck

14

What is located posteriorly under the nodular mucosa of the tongue?

Lingual tonsils

15

What are the nodules on the tongue called?

Papillae

16

What are the valate papillae?

Large papillae anterior to sulcus terminalis in single row

17

Where are the foliate papillae located?

Posterolaterally on tongue

18

Where are the fungiform papillae located?

Line rest of tongue

19

Where are the taste buds located?

In walls of papillae

20

What do the extrinsic muscles of the tongue do?

Alter position of tongue

21

Where do the extrinsic muscles of the tongue attach?

One end inside tongue
One end outside tongue

22

What is the motor supply of the extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

CN XII
Except palatoglossus = pharyngeal branch of CN X

23

What are the extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

Hyoglossus
Palatoglossus
Styloglossus
Genioglossus

24

Where does the hyoglossus attach?

Hyoid
Tongue

25

What does the hyoglossus do?

Depress tongue

26

Where does the palatoglossus attach?

Soft palate
Tongue

27

What does the palotoglossus do?

Elevates tongue

28

Where does the styloglossus attach?

Styloid process
Tongue

29

What does the styloglossus do?

Retract tongue

30

Where does the genioglossus attach?

Genial tubercle on mandible in midline posteriorly
Tongue

31

What does the genioglossus do?

Pulls back of tongue forward > protrudes tongue

32

How can you detect which side a lesion in the hypoglossal nerve is?

When protrude tongue, because of unopposed action of unaffected genioglossus, tongue pushed to side of lesion

33

Where do the intrinsic muscles of the tongue attach?

To other muscles of tongue within it only

34

What do the intrinsic muscles of the tongue do?

Alter shape of the tongue by pulling against each other when they contract

35

What is the motor supply of the intrinsic muscles of the tongue?

CN XII

36

What is the general sensory innervation of the tongue?

Anterior 2/3 = lingual nerve = branch of CN V3
Posterior 1/3 = CN IX

37

What is the special sensory innervation of the tongue?

Anterior 2/3 = chorda tympani = branch of CN VII
Posterior 1/3 = CN IX

38

How many teeth do humans have?

32

39

How many teeth in each arch?

16 in alveolar
16 in mandible

40

What do the medial and lateral incisor do?

Flat and sharp > shearing

41

What does the canine do?

Sharp and point > anchoring

42

What do the premolars and molars do?

Grinding

43

How many premolars in one half do humans have?

2

44

How many molars in one half do humans have?

3

45

What is the wisdom tooth?

3rd molar

46

When do wisdom teeth erupt?

Late in life

47

Why are wisdom teeth often removed?

Not enough room in back of mandible so can impact on 2nd molar
Possibility for damage, infection, and pain

48

What is the nerve supply of the upper teeth?

Superior alveolar nerves = branches of CN V2
Supply teeth from above

49

What is the nerve supply of the lower teeth?

Inferior alveolar nerves = branches of CN V3
Supply teeth from below

50

Where is pain referred to from the upper teeth?

Skin of cheeks

51

Where is pain referred to from the lower teeth?

Innervation of CN V3; eg: ear

52

What is the vascular supply of the teeth?

Branches of external carotid artery

53

What do the salivary glands do?

Produce saliva

54

What are the salivary glands associated with the oral cavity?

Parotid
Submandibular
Sublingual

55

Where is the parotid gland?

Anterior and inferior to external auditory meatus
Superficial to massoter muscle

56

Where is the duct of the parotid gland?

On anterior surface

57

What is the route of the duct of the parotid gland into the oral cavity?

Over massoter muscle
Opens through cheek into oral cavity over upper 2nd molar

58

Where is the submandibular gland?

Sits and wraps around mylohyoid posteriorly over free edge

59

What are the two parts of the submandibular gland?

Intraoral above mylohyoid
Extraoral below mylohyoid
Connected posteriorly

60

Where does the duct of the submandibular gland open into the oral cavity?

From intraoral part
Opens lateral to lingual frenulum

61

What is the lingual frenulum?

Mucosa anchoring tongue to floor of mouth

62

Where is the sublingual gland?

In floor of mouth lateral to tongue

63

Where does the sublingual gland open into the oral cavity?

Many openings in mucosa lateral to attachments of tongue

64

What are the neurovascular structures in the floor of the mouth?

Lingual nerve
Hypoglossal nerve
Lingual arteries and veins

65

What is the clinical significance of the lingual nerves and veins sitting superficially on the undersurface of the tongue?

Can use sublingual delivery of drugs for fast absorption

66

Where does the oropharynx start?

From back of dental arches of maxilla and mandible
Moving posteriorly

67

What is the roof of the oropharynx?

Uvula

68

What is the posterior boundary of the oropharynx?

Superior constrictor

69

What is the inferior boundary of the oropharynx?

Posterior 1/3 of tongue and epiglottis

70

What are the lateral boundaries of the oropharynx?

Palatoglossal arch

71

What forms the palatoglossal arch?

Palatoglossus

72

What is the palatopharyngeal arch?

Attaches from soft palate to wall of pharynx

73

What does the palatopharyngeal arch do?

Contraction pulls down soft palate/elevates pharynx

74

What is the area between to two arches called?

Tonsillar fossa

75

What does the tonsillar fossa hold?

Palatine tonsils

76

Why are chronically inflamed palatine tonsils often removed?

Because compromise opening at back of mouth > can impede movement of food

77

Why can pain from the middle ear be referred to the palatine tonsils?

Because branch of glossopharyngeal nerve supplies palatine tonsils

78

Which palatal arch is posterior and which palatal arch is anterior?

Posterior = palatopharyngeal
Anterior = palatoglossal

79

What is the muscle of the soft palate connected by to the hard palate?

Palatine aponeurosis = connective tissue

80

What do the muscles above the soft palate do?

Elevate soft palate and seal nasal cavity during swallowing

81

Why is the soft palate depressed?

To seal oral cavity from pharynx during chewing
Allows unimpeded breathing

82

What can't you do if you can't seal off the nasal and oral cavities?

Produce suction - particularly important for feeding in babies

83

What are the muscles that attach to the hard palate via the palatine aponeurosis?

Tensor veli palatini
Levator veli palatini
Musculus uvulae
Palatoglossus
Palatopharyngeus

84

What is the role of the muscles around the soft palate?

Support its structure
Make it move

85

What is the musculus uvuale?

Midline muscle projecting down into uvula

86

What reinforces the musculus uvulae from above?

Tensor veli palatini
Levator veli palatini

87

What are the attachments of tensor veli palatini?

Cartilaginous auditory tube and surrounding bones
Musculus uvulae and palatine aponeurosis

88

What are the attachments of levator veli palatini?

Cartilaginous auditory tube and petrous part of temporal bone
Musculus uvulae and palatine aponeurosis

89

What happens when the tensor veli palatini and levator veli palatini contract together?

Elevate soft palate - contribute to seal

90

What do the palotoglossus and palatopharyngeal do>

Fix tongue and pharynx > contract > depress soft palate

91

What is the motor innervation of the muscles of the soft palate?

Pharyngeal branches of CN X
Except for tensor veli palatini = CN V

92

What is Waldeyer's ring?

Describes tonsillar tissue guarding pharynx

93

What is the role of Waldeyer's ring?

Probably important in priming development of immune system particularly early in life

94

What are the tonsil tissues that make up Waldeyer's ring and what are their positions?

Superior = pharyngeaal
Superolateral = tubal
Lateral = palatine
Midline inferiorly = lingual

Decks in MD1 Neuroscience Class (55):