Nasal Cavity and Nasopharynx (ENT 2) Flashcards Preview

MD1 Neuroscience > Nasal Cavity and Nasopharynx (ENT 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nasal Cavity and Nasopharynx (ENT 2) Deck (102):
1

What forms the bridge of the nose?

Frontal bones articulating with nasal bones

2

What closes the lateral part of the nasal cavity?

Frontal process of maxilla

3

What is most of the nose made from?

Cartilaginous skeleton

4

Where is the septal cartilage?

Through midline of nose

5

What does the septal cartilage do?

Split nasal cavity into two halves

6

Where are the lateral cartilages?

Articulate with nasal bones and septal cartilage

7

Where are the alar cartilages?

Articulate with septal cartilage below

8

When does the cartilage in the nose stop growing?

Grows throughout life

9

What forms the superior boundary of the nasal cavity?

Frontal bone
Nasal bone

10

What contributes to the lateral aspect of the external part of the nasal cavity?

Frontal process of maxilla

11

What forms the hard palate?

Horizontal plate of maxilla
Horizontal plate of palatine bone

12

What does the hard palate divide?

Nasal from oral cavity

13

What forms most of the roof and superior and lateral parts of the nasal cavity?

Ethmoid bone

14

How does the ethmoid bone project in the nasal cavity?

Laterally in both halves

15

What does the ethmoid bone do in the midline of the nasal cavity?

Perpendicular plate projects down

16

What forms the medial aspect of the nasal cavity?

Frontal bone
Nasal bone
Part of ethmoid bone, in particular perpendicular plate

17

What forms the posterior aspect of the nasal cavity?

Sphenoid bone

18

How does the septal cartilage close off the nasal septa?

Articulates with perpendicular plate of maxilla and vomer

19

In which bone is the cribriform plate?

Ethmoid bone

20

What is special about the cribriform plate?

Has little holes in it

21

Where is the cribriform plate?

Anterior in midline

22

What is the crista gali?

Superior process of ethmoid bone located anteriorly in midline, projecting up into anterior cranial fossa

23

Which bone can a bad break of the nose impact?

Ethmoid bone

24

What can a fracture of the ethmoid bone mean?

Especially around cribriform plate: damage meninges in anterior cranial fossa
Introduce pathway for
- Infection
- Bleeding into meninges
Rhinorrhoea

25

What is rhinorrhoea?

Leakage of CSF out of subarachnoid space and into nose

26

What overlies the septum?

Flat sheet of mucosa

27

What type of mucosa lines the nasal cavity?

Mostly highly vascular mucous mmbrane
Vestibule lined with skin and hair

28

What is the hair in the vestibule important for?

Trap foreign particles

29

Where do nosebleeds often come from?

Damage to mucosa

30

What is the cell type of the mucosa of the nasal cavity?

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar

31

What is the role of the cilia in the mucosa?

Beat actively towards the front to move mucus from lower airways up and out

32

How much area does the respiratory area cover?

2/3 of nasal cavity

33

What covers the lateral wall?

Highly vascular mucosa

34

In which wall are the turbinates?

Lateral

35

What are the turbinates?

Bony processes which hang off wall like shelves

36

What are the turbinates called?

Conchae
- Superior
- Middle
- Inferior

37

What is located deep to the conchae?

Openings

38

What is the function of the conchae?

Allow air to bounce in cavity to allow it to get to temperature and humidity close to body's

39

Which meatuses are related to the conchae?

Superior, middle, and inferior meatus related to respective conchae

40

What are the openings behind the conchae mostly for?

Paranasal sinuses

41

What are the paranasal sinuses?

Spaces in bone

42

How many paranasal sinuses are there?

Four groups

43

Where is the frontal sinus?

In frontal bone

44

Where are the ethmoid sinuses?

In lateral plate of ethmoid bone

45

Where is the sphenoid sinus?

Posteriorly in sphenoid bone

46

Where is the maxillary sinus?

Laterally in maxilla

47

Where do the frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses sit in relation to the nasal cavity?

Superiorly

48

Why are infections more common in the maxillary sinus compared to the other sinuses?

Bacteria find it relatively difficult to migrate to the superior sinuses

49

How do you naturally drain an infection from the maxillary sinus?

Opening high up in medial wall
Have to stand on head

50

How can dentists damage the maxillary sinus?

Close to upper molars
If dentist fractures thin plate, can introduce route of infection into sinus

51

What is the sensory innervation for the frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses?

CN V1

52

Where is pain referred to from the frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses?

Skin of forehead

53

What is the sensory innervation for the maxillary sinus?

CN V2

54

Where is pain referred to from the maxillary sinus?

Skin of cheeks

55

Which meatus does the frontal sinus open into?

Middle meatus at anterior end of hiatus semilunaris

56

What is the hiatus semilunaris?

Crescent shaped groove in middle meatus

57

Which meatus does the maxillary sinus open into?

Middle meatus at posterior end of hiatus semilunaris

58

Which meatus do the middle ethmoid sinuses open into?

Middle meatus

59

Which meatus do the posterior ethmoid sinuses open into?

Superior meatus

60

Where does the sphenoid sinus open into?

Back of roof of nasal cavity just behind superior concha

61

Where does the nasolacrimal duct open into?

Inferior meatus

62

What does the nasolacrimal duct communicate between?

Lacrimal sac on medial aspect of orbit to nasal cavity

63

Why do you get a runny nose when you cry?

Excess tears run into nasolacrimal duct and spill into inferior meatus

64

How is the nasal cavity divided in terms of blood supply?

Lateral and medial walls each divided into quadrants

65

What is the blood supply of the posterior quadrant of the medial and lateral walls?

Sphenopalatine artery

66

What is the sphenopalatine artery a branch of?

External carotid artery

67

What is the blood supply of the superior quadrant of the medial and lateral walls?

Ethmoidal arteries

68

What is the blood supply of the inferior quadrant of the medial and lateral walls?

Greater palatine artery

69

How does the greater palatine artery enter the nasal cavity?

Through hole in hard palate

70

What is the blood supply of the anterior quadrant of the lateral wall?

Branches of facial artery

71

What is the blood supply of the anterior quadrant of the medial wall?

Labial arteries

72

What is the innervation of the superior half of the nasal cavity?

Branches of CN V1

73

What is the innervation of the inferior half of the nasal cavity?

Branches of CN V2

74

What is the nasopharynx?

Part of pharynx behind nasal cavity

75

Where does the pharynx start and end?

Start: base of skull
End: Lower border of cricoid cartilage at C6

76

What forms the pharynx posteriorly?

Sling of muscle that closes off back of pharynx

77

What are the muscles closing the pharynx posteriorly?

Constrictor muscles
- Superior
- Middle
- Inferior

78

What are the attachments of the constrictor muscles?

On lateral surface of oral cavity, and larynx

79

In which direction do the constrictor muscles project?

Posteriorly

80

Where do the constrictor muscles meet?

In midline

81

What joins the constrictor muscles in the midline?

Median raphe

82

Where does the superior constrictor attach?

Oral cavity

83

What does the superior constrictor do?

Close off most of naso- and oropharyx

84

Where does the middle constrictor attach?

Hyoid bone

85

What does the middle constrictor do?

Close off some of oro- and laryngopharynx

86

Where does the inferior constrictor attach?

Thyroid and cricoid cartilage

87

What does the inferior constrictor do?

Close off laryngopharynx

88

What closes off some of the spaces between the constrictor muscles?

Fascia deep to muscle

89

What is the roof of the nasopharynx?

Sphenoid bone

90

What is the floor of the nasopharynx?

Largely soft palate

91

What is the posterior boundary of the nasopharynx?

Superior constrictor

92

Between what do the two spaces in the nasopharynx communicate?

From nasal cavity to nasopharynx
From naso- to oropharynx

93

Where does the auditory tube open?

In lateral wall of nasopharynx

94

What does the auditory tube communicate betwee?

Tympanic membrane of auditory canal and nasopharynx

95

What is the auditory tube important for?

Equalising pressure on either side of tympanic membrane

96

What happens when mucus blocks or pushes into the auditory tube?

Prevents equalisation

97

Where are the adenoid/pharyngeal tonsils?

In roof of nasopharynx

98

What happens when the adenoid tonsils become chronically inflamed?

Obstruct breathing

99

What does an obstruction in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses do to your voice?

Resonance chambers, so changes quality of voice

100

What is the salpingopharyngeus muscle associated with?

Soft palate

101

Where does the salpingopharyngeus muscle attach?

Cartilaginous auditory tube
Pharynx

102

What does the salpingopharyngeus muscle do?

Pulls on opening into nasopharynx
Allows equalisation of middle ear

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