Larynx and Laryngopharynx (ENT 4) Flashcards Preview

MD1 Neuroscience > Larynx and Laryngopharynx (ENT 4) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Larynx and Laryngopharynx (ENT 4) Deck (77):
1

What is the larynx?

Voice box

2

What is the upper border of the larynx?

Epiglottis

3

What is the lower border of the larynx?

Cricoid cartilage at the level of C6

4

Where is the larynx in relation to the trachea?

Sits at very top

5

What does the larynx communicate with?

Opening posteriorly communicates with airways and pharynx

6

What is the opening between the larynx and airways called?

Laryngeal inlet

7

What is the role of the laryngeal inlet?

Allows air to get in and out of lower airways

8

What makes up the laryngeal skeleton?

Most superior = hyoid bone
Thyroid cartilage
Most inferior = cricoid cartilage

9

What is the Adam's apple?

Angle of the thyroid cartilage

10

Where does the cricoid cartilage sit?

On top of trachea

11

How are the cartilages arranged around the airways?

Wrapped around them

12

What closes the space between the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage?

Thyrohyoid membrane

13

What closes the space between the thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage?

Cricothyroid membrane

14

Is the cricoid cartilage deficient anywhere?

No, entirely closed

15

Describe the arch of the cricoid cartilage

Short
In midline
Anterior

16

Describe the lamina of the cricoid cartilage

Tall
In midline
Posterior

17

Where are the arytenoid cartilages located?

Posterolaterally on cricoid cartilage (on both sides)

18

What shape is the arytenoid cartilage?

Pyramidal

19

What is the muscular process on the arytenoid cartilage for?

Attachment of muscles

20

Where is the muscular process on the arytenoid cartilage?

Laterally

21

What is the vocal process on the arytenoid cartilage for?

Attachment of vocal ligaments

22

In what direction does the vocal process on the arytenoid cartilage project?

Inwards

23

How do the arytenoid cartilages move?

Swivel on axis going through midline of pyramid
Slide towards each other in midline

24

Why do the arytenoid cartilages move?

To move vocal ligaments

25

Is the thyroid cartilage deficient anywhere?

Yes, posteriorly

26

Where is the angle of the thyroid cartilage located?

Anteriorly

27

Where is the laryngeal inlet in relation to the thyroid cartilage?

Sits in deficiency posteriorly

28

What does the thyroid cartilage articulate with inferiorly?

Cricoid cartilage

29

Where does the thyrohyoid membrane attach to the thyroid cartilage>

Horns located superiorly

30

Where does the epiglottic cartilage take origin from?

Posterior aspect from angle of thyroid cartilage

31

In what direction does the epiglottic cartilage project?

Upwards from angle of thyroid cartilage

32

Where is the epiglottic cartilage in relation to the hyoid bone?

Behind and above

33

Where is the epiglottic cartilage in relation to the tongue?

Just on posterior aspect of tongue

34

What is the role of the epiglottic cartilage?

Bolus of food pushes cartilage down > closes laryngeal inlet

35

From where does the vocal ligament take origin?

Arytenoid cartilage posteriorly, one from each

36

What is the route of the vocal ligaments?

Run together towards midline to just underneath inferior aspect of epiglottic cartilage

37

What does the epiglottic cartilage and the mucosa overlying it form?

Epiglottis

38

What is the fold formed by the mucosa above the vocal ligaments called?

Vestibular fold = false vocal cord

39

What does the vocal ligaments and the overlying mucosa form?

Vocal fold = true vocal cord

40

What is the role of the vestibular fold?

If something aspirated down larnyx, won't hit true vocal cord

41

How is sound by the vocal cords made?

Vocal ligaments adducted > push air past them > vibrate > make sound

42

How are the vocal cords position to allow breathing?

Abducted

43

How is the position of the vocal ligaments changed?

Intrinsic muscles of larynx act largely on muscular process of arytenoid cartilages > cartilages swivel and slide > vocal ligaments alter position

44

What are the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?

Posterior cricoarytenoid
Transverse and oblique arytenoids
Lateral cricoarytenoid
Cricothyroid
Thyroarytenoid
Vocalis

45

What are the attachments of the posterior cricoarytenoid?

Muscular process of arytenoid cartilage
Posterior aspect of cricoid cartilage

46

What is the action of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle?

Pulls muscular processes together posteriorly > moves vocal ligaments away from each other > abducts vocal ligaments

47

Which muscle is the only abductor of the vocal ligaments?

Cricoarytenoid

48

What are the attachments of the transverse and oblique arytenoids?

Run directly between two arytenoid cartilages

49

What is the action of the transverse and oblique arytenoid muscles?

Pulls arytenoid cartilages together > slide towards each other in midline > contribute to adduction of vocal ligaments and phonation

50

What are the attachments of the lateral cricoarytenoid?

Lateral aspect of cricoid
Muscular process of arytenoid cartilage

51

What is the action of the lateral cricoarytenoid?

Pulls muscular processes away from each other > vocal ligaments move towards each other > adducts vocal ligaments, producing sound

52

What are the attachments of the cricothyroid?

Thyroid cartilage
Anteriorly to cricoid cartilage

53

What is the action of the cricothyroid?

Pulls thyroid cartilage forward > stretches vocal ligaments > produces higher pitched sounds

54

What are the attachments of the thyroarytenoid?

Thyroid cartilage
Arytenoid cartilage

55

What are the attachments of the vocalis?

Runs length of vocal ligament

56

What is the action of the thyroarytenoid and vocalis?

Together when they contract, make vocal ligaments more lax > produce lower pitched sounds

57

Where are the nerves supplying the muscles and sensory innervation of the mucosa of the larynx derived from?

Branches of vagus

58

Which nerve is most superior in the larynx?

Superior laryngeal

59

What does the external laryngeal nerve do?

Motor innervation to cricothyroid

60

What does damage to the external laryngeal nerve mean?

Can't produce high pitched sounds

61

What does the internal laryngeal nerve do?

Pierces mucosa
Sensory innervation to mucosa above vocal ligaments

62

What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve do?

Sensory innervation to mucosa below vocal ligament
Motor innervation to intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid as inferior laryngeal nerve?

63

Where is the thyroid gland located?

Superficial to cricoid cartilage and thrachea

64

What is the blood supply of the thyroid gland?

Superior and inferior thyroid arteries

65

What is the blood supply to the structures deep to the thyroid gland?

Branches of superior and inferior thyroid arteries

66

Why is establishing an emergency airway through the trachea not a good ide?

Area very vascular > get bleeding into airways

67

Where should you make an emergency airway?

At cricothyroid membrane
- Less vascular
- Avoid damage to vocal ligaments

68

Where is the laryngopharynx?

Behind larynx

69

What closes the laryngeal inlet completely when swallowing a bolus of food?

Bolus partly pushes epiglottis down
Larynx elevates

70

What structure does fluid spill into during swallowing to avoid the airways?

Around laryngeal inlet into pririform recess

71

What is the sensory nerve supply of the pharynx?

Branches of glossopharyngeal nerve

72

Which nerve reinforces sensory innervation in the nasopharynx?

Branches of trigeminal nerve

73

Which nerve reinforces sensory innervation in the laryngopharynx?

Branches of vagus nerve

74

What forms the afferent half of the gag reflex?

Glossopharyngeal nerve

75

What is the motor nerve supply of the pharynx?

Branches of vagus, except for stylopharyngeus

76

What is the motor nerve supply to the stylopharyngeus?

Glossopharyngeal nerve

77

What forms the efferent half of the gag reflex?

Vagus nerve

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