Circulation of CNS Flashcards Preview

MD1 Neuroscience > Circulation of CNS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Circulation of CNS Deck (84):
1

Why does the CNS need efficient delivery of nutrients and removal of metabolic byproducts?

High metabolic requirements

2

What is the percentage of cardiac output that's needed by the CNS?

10-20%

3

What does autoregulation of cerebral blood flow do?

Maintain adequate perfusion when arterial BP changes or if blood gases change

4

Which area of the brain has more blood vessels: cortex or white matter?

Cortex

5

What does the circle of Willis do?

Provide arterial supply to brain

6

What two systems form the circle of Willis?

Vertebro-basilar
Internal carotid

7

What does the circle of Willis allow if one of the blood vessels becomes blocked?

Blood to reach brain still

8

Where is the circle of Willis?

Around optic chiasm and hypothalamus

9

In which direction do the internal carotid arteries more?

Laterally

10

In which direction do the vertebro-basilar arteries move?

Over brainstem

11

What forms the vertebro-basilar system?

Two vertebral arteries join to form basilar artery medially

12

Through which foramen do the vertebral arteries enter the skull?

Foramen magnum

13

Through what does the internal carotid enter the skull?

Carotid canal in base of skull

14

Which artery is the vertebral artery a branch of?

Subclavian

15

How does the vertebral artery travel up the spine?

Through transverse foramina

16

What brain structure does the vertebral artery associate with before joining the circle of Willis?

Brainstem

17

Which system forms the posterior circulation of the circle of Willis?

Vertebro-basilar system

18

Which system forms the anterior circulation of the circle of Willis?

Internal carotid

19

What are the main arteries supplying the cerebrum?

Anterior cerebral artery
Middle cerebral artery
Posterior cerebral artery

20

How is the loop in the circle of Willis closed?

Via communicating arteries

21

What gives off the anterior cerebral artery?

Internal carotid artery

22

In which direction does the anterior cerebral artery run?

Anteriorly and medially

23

What joins the two anterior cerebral arteries?

Anterior communicating artery

24

What is the posterior cerebral artery a branch of?

Basilar artery

25

What does the posterior communicating artery join?

Posterior cerebral and internal carotid arteries

26

What does the anterior cerebral artery supply?

Medial part of
- Frontal lobe
- Parietal lobe
Up to parieto-occipital sulcus

27

What functional territories are supplied by the anterior cerebral artery?

Motor and sensory cortices for lower limb

28

In what structure does the anterior cerebral artery run?

Longitudinal fissure

29

What is the relationship between the anterior cerebral artery and corpus callosum?

Hooks around front of corpus callosum > arches over

30

What clinical signs do you see with a cerebrovascular event in an anterior cerebral artery?

Contralateral hemiparesis with spastic paralysis of lower limb
Contralateral hemianaesthesia of lower limb

31

What does the middle cerebral artery supply?

Lateral surface of brain including parts of
- Frontal lobe
- Parietal lobe
- Superior and lateral parts of temporal lobe
- Occipital lobe
Insula

32

What are the functional territories supplied by the middle cerebral artery?

Motor and sensory cortices for body except lower limb
Parieto-occipital association areas
Language areas

33

What is the middle cerebral artery a branch of?

Internal carotid artery

34

In which direction does the middle cerebral artery run?

Directly laterally

35

In which structure does the middle cerebral artery run?

In lateral fissure between temporal lobe, and frontal and parietal lobes

36

Where does the middle cerebral artery externalise in the brain?

On lateral surface of cerebrum

37

What clinical signs do you see with a cerebrovascular accident in a middle cerebral artery?

Contralateral hemiparesis associated with upper limb and face
Contralateral hemianaesthesia associated with upper limb and face
If on language dominant side, aphasia

38

What does the posterior cerebral artery supply?

Medial and inferior surfaces of
- Temporal lobe
- Occipital lobe

39

What functional territories does the posterior cerebral artery supply?

Visual cortex

40

Where does the posterior cerebral artery come off the basilar artery?

At level of medulla

41

In which direction does the posterior cerebral artery move?

Laterally and posteriorly

42

What clinical signs do you see with a cerebrovascular event in a posterior cerebral artery?

Loss of vision in contralateral visual field

43

What is homonymous hemianopia?

Loss of vision in visual field of one side

44

What is the role of the small perforating branches?

Supply deep structures where they com off main arteries

45

What does the anterior group of small perforating branches come off?

Anterior communicating artery

46

What does the anterior group of small perforating branches supply?

Optic chiasm
Anterior parts of hypothalamus

47

What does the posterior group of small perforating branches come off?

Posterior cerebral artery

48

What does the posterior group of small perforating branches supply?

Ventral parts of midbrain
Posterior parts of hypothalamus
Thalamus

49

What do the pontine branches come off?

Basilar artery before it terminates

50

What do the pontine branches supply?

Pons

51

What does the lateral group of small perforating branches come off?

Middle cerebral artery as it projects laterally

52

What does the lateral group of small perforating branches supply?

Basal ganglia
Internal capsule

53

What else is the lateral group of small perforating branches called?

Lenticulostriate arteries

54

Which artery is the ophthalmic artery a branch of?

Internal carotid artery

55

Where does the ophthalmic artery branch from the internal carotid?

Just before anterior and middle cerebral arteries

56

What structure does the ophthalmic artery enter?

Orbit

57

What does the ophthalmic artery supply?

Eye, including retina
Top of nasal cavity
Frontal scalp

58

Which artery is the anterior choroid artery a branch of?

Internal carotid artery

59

What structure does the anterior choroid artery follow?

Lateral ventricle all the way around - forms C shaped hook

60

What structures does the anterior choroid artery supply?

Structures in deep lateral hemispheres
- Optic tract
- Lateral ventricles
- Hippocampus

61

What does the posterior inferior cerebellar artery branch off?

Vertebral artery

62

What does the posterior inferior cerebellar artery supply?

Posterior part of inferior surface of cerebellum

63

What are the branches of the basilar artery, in order?

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery
Superior cerebellar artery
Posterior cerebral artery

64

What does the anterior inferior cerebellar artery supply?

Anterior part of inferior cerebellum

65

What does the superior cerebellar artery supply?

Superior cerebellum

66

In which direction do cerebellar arteries project?

Posteriorly

67

What are the spinal arteries?

One anterior spinal artery
Two posterior spinal arteries

68

Where does the anterior spinal artery run?

In ventral longitudinal fissure in spinal cord

69

How is the anterior spinal artery formed?

One branch from each vertebral artery meet

70

What do branches from the superior cerebellar artery supply?

Posterior part of midbrain, in particular colliculi

71

Where does most of the midbrain that is not supplied by branches of the superior cerebellar artery get its blood supply from?

Some posterior perforating branches of posterior cerebral artery

72

Where does the medulla get its blood supply from?

Medially from anterior spinal artery
Posterolaterally from posterior inferior cerebellar artery
In between where olives are from vertebral artery

73

What is the medial medullary syndrome?

Group of signs associated with cerebrovascular accident of anterior spinal artery

74

What are the clinical signs of medial medullary syndrome?

Pyramids
- Contralateral hemiparesis
- UMN signs
- Spastic paralysis
- Hyper-reflexia
Medial lemniscus
- Contralateral hemianaesthesia
Hypoglossal nucleus
- Ipsilateral paralysis
- Ipsilateral atrophy of some tongue muscles

75

What is the lateral medullary syndrome?

Group of signs associated with cerebrovascular accident of posterior inferior cerebellar artery

76

What is the origin of the posterior spinal arteries?

Vertebral arteries

77

Where do the posterior spinal arteries run?

Posterolateral aspect of spinal cord

78

What reinforces the spinal arteries?

Radicular arteries

79

What is the origin of radicular arteries?

Branches of some of segmental arteries of aorta

80

What forms the anastomosis between the anterior and posterior spinal arteries?

Circumferential branches

81

Where do the cerebral veins run?

In subarachnoid space

82

What do the cerebral veins drain into?

Venous sinuses

83

Where do the venous sinuses drain to?

Jugular venous system

84

Between which layers of the meninges are the venous sinuses located?

Two layers of dura

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