Flashcards in Cognitive and Psychological Consequences of Brain Injury Deck (33):
What is acquired brain injury?
Injury to brain after birth
What are some types of acquired brain injury?
Traumatic brain injury
Hypoxic injuries because of myocardial infarcts
Which areas of the brain are most sensitive to hypoxic injury?
Areas of shared vascular territories
What are some types of congenital brain injury?
What are some factors that contribute to having a congenital brain injury?
- Vitamin deficiencies
- Foetal alcohol syndrome
- Prenatal infection
What are traumatic brain injuries?
Sudden trauma causing injury to brain
What are some examples of neurodegenerative injuries?
Motor neuron disease
How do you classify a mild traumatic brain injury?
Glasgow coma scale at scene: 13-15
Time of unconsciousness:
How do you classify a moderate traumatic brain injury?
Glasgow coma scale at scene: 9-12
Time of unconsciousness: 30 min-6 hrs
Length of post-traumatic amnesia: 1-7 days
How do you classify a severe traumatic brain injury?
Glasgow coma scale at scene: 3-8
Time of unconsciousness: >6 hrs
Length of post-traumatic amnesia: >7 days
What is the most important factor in classifying traumatic brain injury?
Length of post-traumatic amnesia
What is the biggest cause of traumatic brain injury?
What are some causes of traumatic brain injury?
What are the risk factors of having a traumatic brain injury?
Male (2:1) - until elderly when it evens out
- Especially alcohol
- 0-4 yrs
- 15-24 yrs
- Over 75 yrs
- Risk taking behaviour
- History of psychiatric disorder
- Limited educational attainment
- Unstable work history
What are predictors of a good outcome after a traumatic brain injury?
Normal function beforehand
Length of post-traumatic amnesia
Number of previous traumatic brain injuries
Pre-morbid psychiatric history
- Higher education
- Higher intelligence
What is congenital brain injury?
Present at birth because of developmental defects/damage
What is neurodegenerative injury?
Because of ongoing neurodegenerative disease
What is post-traumatic amnesia?
Period of dense confusion after traumatic event
What can acceleration and deceleration forces cause to the head?
Laceration of scalp
Shifting of intracranial contents
Focal and diffuse changes in brain matter
What are some focal changes that can occur?
- Commonly at basal/polar areas of frontal and temporal lobes
What are some diffuse changes that can occur?
Widespread neural excitation
What are some secondary complications that can occur?
Raised intracranial pressure
Which areas of the brain are frequently damaged, and why?
Because of proximity to bony structures in skull
- Frontal and temporal lobes
Because of vulnerability of white matter tearing
- Corpus callosum
- Basal ganglia
- Superior cerebellar peduncles
Because of hypoxia
What are the common and prominent cognitive and psychological difficulties associated with traumatic brain injury?
How long do post-concussion symptoms take to subside in mild traumatic brain injury?
What are common physical symptoms after a mild traumatic brain injury?
Sensitivity to noise and/or bright lights
What are common psychological symptoms after a mild traumatic brain injury?
What are common cognitive symptoms after a mild traumatic brain injury?
- Processing speed
What is persistent post-concussive syndrome?
Symptoms persisting after mild TBI and can result in ongoing disability and adjustment difficulties
What is persistent post-concussive syndrome associated with?
Pre-injury physical and psychiatric problems
Presence of additional stressors
What are the physical symptoms after a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury?
Balance and coordination difficulties
More specific effects dependent on specific location and severity of injury
What are the cognitive symptoms after a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury?
Information processing speed
New learning and memory
- Problem solving
- Goal directed behaviour
- Abstract thinking
- Mental flexibility
Emotional regulation difficulties