Cognitive and Psychological Consequences of Brain Injury Flashcards Preview

MD1 Neuroscience > Cognitive and Psychological Consequences of Brain Injury > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognitive and Psychological Consequences of Brain Injury Deck (33):
1

What is acquired brain injury?

Umbrella term
Injury to brain after birth

2

What are some types of acquired brain injury?

Stroke
Infections
Traumatic brain injury
Hypoxic injuries because of myocardial infarcts
Neurodegenerative

3

Which areas of the brain are most sensitive to hypoxic injury?

Hippocampus
Areas of shared vascular territories

4

What are some types of congenital brain injury?

Encephalopathy
Some epilepsies
Developmental defects

5

What are some factors that contribute to having a congenital brain injury?

Genetic factors
Environmental factors
- Vitamin deficiencies
- Foetal alcohol syndrome
- Prenatal infection

6

What are traumatic brain injuries?

Sudden trauma causing injury to brain

7

What are some examples of neurodegenerative injuries?

Parkinson's disease
Alzheimer's disease
Dementia
Alcohol syndrome
Motor neuron disease

8

How do you classify a mild traumatic brain injury?

Glasgow coma scale at scene: 13-15
Time of unconsciousness:

9

How do you classify a moderate traumatic brain injury?

Glasgow coma scale at scene: 9-12
Time of unconsciousness: 30 min-6 hrs
Length of post-traumatic amnesia: 1-7 days

10

How do you classify a severe traumatic brain injury?

Glasgow coma scale at scene: 3-8
Time of unconsciousness: >6 hrs
Length of post-traumatic amnesia: >7 days

11

What is the most important factor in classifying traumatic brain injury?

Length of post-traumatic amnesia

12

What is the biggest cause of traumatic brain injury?

Car accidents

13

What are some causes of traumatic brain injury?

Car accidents
Falls
Fights
Blast injuries
Domestic violence
Child abuse

14

What are the risk factors of having a traumatic brain injury?

Male (2:1) - until elderly when it evens out
Substance use
- Especially alcohol
Age
- 0-4 yrs
- 15-24 yrs
- Over 75 yrs
Psychosocial factors
- Risk taking behaviour
- History of psychiatric disorder
- Limited educational attainment
- Unstable work history

15

What are predictors of a good outcome after a traumatic brain injury?

Normal function beforehand
Length of post-traumatic amnesia
Number of previous traumatic brain injuries
Age
Location
Function
Motivation
Pre-morbid psychiatric history
Cognitive reserve
- Higher education
- Higher intelligence

16

What is congenital brain injury?

Present at birth because of developmental defects/damage

17

What is neurodegenerative injury?

Because of ongoing neurodegenerative disease

18

What is post-traumatic amnesia?

Period of dense confusion after traumatic event

19

What can acceleration and deceleration forces cause to the head?

Laceration of scalp
Skull fracture
Shifting of intracranial contents
Focal and diffuse changes in brain matter

20

What are some focal changes that can occur?

Haematoma
Contusion
- Commonly at basal/polar areas of frontal and temporal lobes

21

What are some diffuse changes that can occur?

Axonal injury
Microvascular damage
Widespread neural excitation
Metabolic changes

22

What are some secondary complications that can occur?

Brain swelling
Infection
Raised intracranial pressure
Respiratory arrest

23

Which areas of the brain are frequently damaged, and why?

Because of proximity to bony structures in skull
- Frontal and temporal lobes
Because of vulnerability of white matter tearing
- Corpus callosum
- Basal ganglia
- Hypothalamus
- Superior cerebellar peduncles
- Fornices
Because of hypoxia
- Hippocampus

24

What are the common and prominent cognitive and psychological difficulties associated with traumatic brain injury?

Processing speed
Attention
Working memory
Executive functioning
Regulating emotions
Managing frustration

25

How long do post-concussion symptoms take to subside in mild traumatic brain injury?

Days-weeks

26

What are common physical symptoms after a mild traumatic brain injury?

Headache
Dizziness
Fatigue
Blurred/double vision
Sensitivity to noise and/or bright lights
Tinnitus

27

What are common psychological symptoms after a mild traumatic brain injury?

Restlessness
Insomnia
Irritability
Anxiety
Depression

28

What are common cognitive symptoms after a mild traumatic brain injury?

Reduced
- Processing speed
- Attention
- Memory

29

What is persistent post-concussive syndrome?

Symptoms persisting after mild TBI and can result in ongoing disability and adjustment difficulties

30

What is persistent post-concussive syndrome associated with?

Pre-injury physical and psychiatric problems
Adjustment issues
Coping style
Presence of additional stressors
Previous TBIs

31

What are the physical symptoms after a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury?

Fatigue
Balance and coordination difficulties
More specific effects dependent on specific location and severity of injury

32

What are the cognitive symptoms after a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury?

Attention
Information processing speed
New learning and memory
Word-finding problems
Executive difficulties
- Planning
- Problem solving
- Goal directed behaviour
- Abstract thinking
- Mental flexibility
Impulsivity
Emotional regulation difficulties
Reduced insight

33

What are the psychological and behavioural symptoms after a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury?

Increased irritability
Aggression
Lowered frustration tolerance
Reduced initiative/apathy
Flattened affect
Verbosity
Egocentricity
Mood swings
Excessive emotion
Reduced emotion perception
Reduced behavioural insight

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