Anatomy I (Abdo Walls) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy I (Abdo Walls) Deck (71):
1

Name the layers from external to innermost

Skin>superficial fascia(fatty/membranous)>ext oblique>int oblique>transversus abdominus>transversalis fascia>extraperitoneal fascia>parietal peritoneal fascia

2

What is mesentery?

double fold of visceral peritoneum

3

How to the follow attach to the costal margins?
1. external oblique
2. internal oblique
3. transversus abdominus

1. overlaps
2. edge to edge
3. underlaps

4

3 layers of abdomen are _____laterally and ________medially?

fleshy
aponeurotic

5

describe the external oblique attachment inferiorly?

free inferior edge = inguinal ligament, from ASIS to pub tub with a triangular opening

6

Describe the external oblique's posterior edge?

free

7

Describe the external oblique's superior edge?

aponeurotic medially
attaches to pec major and serratus

8

What is the middle of the abdomen where the external oblique called?

raphe interdigitate

9

What are the conjoined tendons in the abdomen?

internal oblique and transversus abdominus insert together into the pubic crest

10

where do the lowermost fibres of internal oblique arise from?

lateral 2/3 of inguinal ligament

11

Transversus abdominus: how does it attach to costal margins?

underlaps, continuous plane with diaphragm

12

internal oblique posterior origin?

thoracolumbar fascia

13

Where do the lowermost fibres of Transversus abdominus arrise from?

lateral 1/2 inguinal ligament

14

Transversus abdominus does what to insert inferiorly?

arches and joins with internal oblique conjoined tendon and inserts into public crest

15

the linea alba is in the centre of the abdomen, what lineas are on either side of the rectus abdominals?

linea semilunaris

16

Where is a marker of the gall bladder on the abdomen?

where the linea semilunaris and external oblique intersects

17

Where is the arcuate line?

2.5 cm below umbilicus

18

Whats different in an upper and lower transverse section of abdominal muscles?

upper-internal oblique splits around rectus abdominus
lower-int oblique and TA both run over the rectus abdominus

19

Which nerves and Where do the nerves of the abdomen run between?

T7-12 and run between internal oblique and transversus abdominus

20

the nerves of the abdomen: Umbilus is around?

T10

21

What nerves of the abdomen are between umbilicus and groin?

T11-12

22

Arteries of anterior abdominal wall?

internal thoracic
superior epigastic
inferior epigastric
superficial epigastric

23

venous drainage of anterior abdominal wall?

IVC and portal

24

Where does the teste develop?

in the extraperitoneal fat

25

How long does it take the teste to traverse into the scrotum?

3 days

26

Describe the route of the teste:

Start at the extra peritoneal fat in the poster lumbar region inside the abdominal cavity
Travel to the deep ring which is located in the aponeurosis of the transversis abdominis, half way between the ASIS and the pubic tubercle, a finger's width above the inguinal ligament
Enter the inguinal canal
Travel down the canal and out the superficial ring (the triangle structure)
Go into the scotum

27

What are the 4 major muscles in the posterior abdomen?

quadratus lumborum
psoas major
Psoas minor
iliacus major

28

Where is psoas major located in term of near the vertebrae?

between bodies and transverse processes of vertebrae

29

What is the lateral edge of psoas major like?

straight but oblique

30

Can you see the lateral edge of the psoas major on x-ray?

yes, abdominal x-ray

31

Which vertebrae is psoas major originate?

inferior border of T12 to upper L5

32

Along T12 to L5, psoas major also attaches to what along the way?

discs and the vertebral bodies

33

Where does psoas major insert?

with iliacus via conjoined tendon into the lesser trochanter

34

What are located behind the psoas? within the psoas? and in front of the psoas?

behind: lumbar vessels off of aorta
within: lumbar plexus, L1-4 ventral ramus
in front: sympathetic trunks

35

how many people have psoas minor?

2/3rds of population

36

Where is the origin and insertion of psoas minor?

origin: T12/L1
inserts with periosteum of pelvis

37

Where does QL originate?

tip of lumbar transverse processes, inferior aspect of T12

38

Where does QL insert?

top of iliac crest

39

What does QL do?

stabilizer and flexor of spine

40

iliacus fills in what?

fills in the smooth iliac fossa

41

Where does is insert?

converges with psoas into the lesser trochanter

42

Does iliacus psoas and QL all have their own fascia?

Iliacus and psoas does
QL does not

43

Where is QL's fascia?

within anterior compartment of thoracolumbar fascia

44

How many compartments in thoracolumbar fascia?

3
anterior
middle
posterior

45

Where does the posterior thoracolumbar fascia extend?

neck to sacrum

46

Where does the anterior and middle thoracolumbar fascia extend?

only in thoracolumbar region

47

how do you get a psoas abcess?

from TB when it's in the bone, it can burst through but wont' pierce lumbar fascia, it just runs down the psoas fascia and presents in the hip.

48

thoracolumbar fascia is origin for what muscles?

internal oblique
transversus abdominis

49

where in the peritoneum is the kidney?

retroperitoneal

50

Kidneys are on which muscle?

QL

51

kidneys are in the paravertebral gutter between which vertebrae?

T12 to L3

52

Which kidney is lower? why?

right due to liver pushing down on it

53

what's the best approach surgically to get to kidneys?why?

posterior or lateral approach both extraperitoneal

54

Dimensions of kidney?

10x5x2.5cm

55

Which adrenal gland is a party hat/pyramidal?

right

56

what is surrounded by its own fibrous capsule, surrounded by fat, then enclosed by peri-renal fat, then extra peritoneal fat?

kidney

57

outer cortex of kidney is continuous or discontinuous?

continuous

58

inner medulla of kidney is continuous or discontinuous?

discontinuous medullary pyramids with apex towards hilum

59

Describe vessels front to back at the hilum of kidney.

renal vein
renal artery
uretery pelvis
nerves&lymphatics

60

What's in the renal sinus?

fat

61

would you want an artery in front of a vein?

nope, it will compress it otherwise

62

renal artery path from aorta?

behind the IVC

63

Renal artery divides into how many segments?

5 functional segments so surgical resection is possible if needed

64

Can you have more than one artery supplying the kidney?

in rare cases if in utero development, it doesn't shed the accessory arteries as it moves, it could persist into adulthood

65

Where do the renal veins drain?

IVC

66

What is path of right and left renal veins into IVC?

Right: straight in
Left: over the aorta, with superior mesenteric artery

67

Trace the main pathway of structures from cortex to ureter

Cortex>medulla>minor calyces>major calyces>renal pelvis>ureter

68

how long are ureters and are they muscular?

yes muscular
25-30cm long

69

Which muscle does the ureters it on?

psoas major

70

how do ureters get blood supply?

pick up arteries along the way

71

Where are the 3 places you can get kidney stones stuck in the ureter?

1. uretopelvic junction
2. crossing of iliac artery
3. uretero-vesical junction