Anatomy II (Viscera) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy II (Viscera) Deck (81):
1

How long is the esophagus?

25-30cm long

2

What level does the esophagus begin?

C6 - cricoid cartilage

3

What level does the esophagus pass through in the diaphragm?

T10

4

T/F? esophagus enters left hand side of stomach?

False. Right hand side

5

Is the entire esophagus in the thorax?

Nope. last half inch in abdomen

6

Describe the esophagogastric junction.

Z-line, abrupt change from esophageal stratified epithelium to stomach lining

7

what is the cervical narrowing of the oesophagus called?

oesophageal sphincter

8

What does the left main bronchus do to the esophagus?

extrinsically compresses it

9

Where does the cervical and thoracic reagions of esophagus drain it's venous blood to?

Caval system

10

Two kinds of esophageal hernias are?

Paraesophageal hernia
Sliding hernia

11

what quadrant is the stomach in?

lefft upper quadrant

12

what shape is the stomach and name the two orifices:

'J' shaped
cardiac orifice (Right side)
pyloric orifice

13

Where is the fundus of the stomach?

above cardiac orifice
sits underneath left diaphragm

14

Can you see the fundus on x-ray?

usually yes, see the air bubble

15

curvatures of stomach are?

lesser
greater

16

What is the pyloric antrum?

funnel narrowing of stomach towards pyloric canal/lumen

17

What's the reason behind having a pyloric sphincter?

allows slow release into duodenum

18

What does the lesser omentum attach?

liver to lesser curvature of stomach

19

what does greater omentum attach?

greater curvature of stomach to the spleen and lower area

20

4 main arteries to stomach?

R and L gastric
R and L gastroepiploic

21

How long and how many parts is the duodenum?

10 inches long
4 parts 'C'-shaped

22

What part of the duodenum is retroperitoneal?

all but the first inch

23

How long are each of the 4 parts of the duodenum ?

First: 2-inches - duodenal cap
Second: 3-inches
Three: 4-inches
Four: 1-inch

24

Describe the 2nd part of the duodenum:

vertical next to head of pancreas/hilum of right kidney on psoas major

25

describe the path of the 3rd part of the duodenum

retroperitoneal from right to left psoas, crossing L3, IVC, and aorta

26

How is the 4th part of the duodenum attached to which psoas?

via fibrous tissue to left psoas

27

Where is the opening of the bile and pancreatic duct located?

2nd part of the duodenum, the descending portion: 1.5 inches down

28

What is a duodenal papilla? how many do we have?

Major: below: bile/pancreatic
Minor: above: accessory duct from pancreas

29

Where does the jejenum become the ileum?

No clear demarkation

30

How long is the small intestine?

4-6 metres long from Duodenal-jejunum flexure

31

% of small intestine is jejunum/ileum

jejunum: 40%
ileum: 60%

32

small intestine are retroperitoneal?

NOPE. INTRAperitoneal

33

What conducts the neurovasculature to the small intestine?

messentary

34

jejunum or ileum is thicker/larger lumen, more mucosal folds?

jejunum

35

in surgery, how can you tell if you are looking at jejunum?

less fat in mesentry
very few arterial arcades
many long vasa recta

36

in surgery, how can you tell if you are looking at ileum?

more fat in ileum
a lot of arterial arcades
shorter vasa recta

37

How long is the large intestine?

1.5 metres

38

large intestine longitudinal has 3 bands they are?

1. three tenia coli
2. Haustra (saculations)
3. fat tags (epiploic appendices)

39

What is the cecum?

patch hanging down the ileal-cecal junction

40

Where is the appendix attached to?

posterolateral portion cecum where 3 tenia converge

41

how long is the appendix, how many % of people with pelvic vs. retrocecal?

7-10cm long
65% retrocecal
20% pelvic

42

What sides are the hepatic and splenic flexures of the large intestine on?

right side= hepatic flexure
left side = splenic flexure

43

what happens after the descending colon?

sigmoid colon

44

How and where is the mesocolon placed?

hang down in the pelvis

45

What happens at the rectosigmoid junction to teniae

they spread out and become longitudinal muscle layer

46

8 functions of the liver

1. storage of energy sources
2. production of cellular fuels
3. plasma proteins and clotting factors
4. metabolism of toxins and drugs
5. modification of hormones
6. bile acid production
7. excretion of billirubin
8. storage of iron and vitamins

47

what are the 2 surfaces of the liver?

diaphragmatic: smooth dome
visceral

48

what are you feeling when you feel an enlarged liver below the costal margin?

inferior margin of liver

49

what is the ligamentum teres of the liver?

remnants of umbilical vein

50

what is the falciform ligament

double folded peritoneum that connects liver to anterior abdo wall.

51

which liver lobe is bigger? L or R?

Right

52

4 lobes on visceral surface of liver, they are?

Quadrate
Caudate
Left
Right

53

Where is the gall bladder located?

between quadrate and right lobe

54

What is between the caudate and right lobe?

IVC

55

Where is the IVC located on the visceral liver?

between the caudate and right lobe

56

What was the ligamentum venosum?

was the ductus venous, a shunt to bypass blood in the liver.

57

Name the structures at the port hepatis

posterior: portal vein
middle: hepatic artery
anterior: hepatic bile duct
Nerve plexuses are too hidden

58

What runs in the free edge of the lesser omentum ?

portal vein
hepatic artery
bile duct

59

What's the difference between hepatic veins and portal veins?

1. hepatic veins drains directly into IVC, not part of hilum
2. portal vein brings products from GI system to process in liver

60

Describe the ducts from the liver to the common bile duct:

right and left hepatic duct form hepatic duct, then joined by cystic duct to become the common bile duct

61

trace the path of the common bile duct to where it empties halfway down the descending duodenum

along free edge of lesser omentum
behind first part of duodenum
behind head of pancreas
into papilla

62

3 parts of gall bladder are:

fundus
body
neck

63

2 parts of the cystic duct of gall bladder are:

spiral near neck of gallbladder
smooth after spiral part

64

What is the ampulla of Vater?

last part of the common bile duct as it attaches to papilla

65

Where is the spinster of oddi?

at the ampulla of Vater to control bile and pancreatic fluid release

66

mechanism of bile storage?

no digestion = contraction of sphincter of oddi, bile backs up the common bile duct into the gall bladder and chills there until needed.

67

Where is the anatomical landmark for the gallbladder on the external abdominal surface?

where right costal margin meets right line semilunaris

68

what kind of gland is the pancreas?

exocrine
endocrine

69

describe the exocrine functions of the pancreas

excretes into duct digestive enzymes: starches, fat, proteins and bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid

70

describe the endocrine functions of the pancreas

into blood stream:
somatistatin
glucagon
insulin

71

4 parts of pancreas are:

Head
Neck
body
tail

72

Pancreas is intra or retroperitoneal?

retroperitoneal

73

Where does the tail of the pancreas lead to?

hilum of the spleen

74

What is the uncinate process of pancreas?

the lingula of head of pancreas

75

Where is the neck of the pancreas located?

deep to the pylorus of stomach

76

Where is the body of the pancreas located?

above the D-J flexure

77

The right hand side of the body of the pancreas passes over what structures?

aorta
IVC
vertebral column

78

What does the accessory duct of the pancreas drain, and into where?

drains head and neck of pancreas, into the minor papilla 1-inch proximal to the major papilla

79

Where is the spleen and how big is approximately?

left upper quadrant near left dome of diaphragm
'fist' sized

80

Superior margin of spleen is ALWAYS ______?

Notched.

81

Which ribs are the right side of the spleen close to? significance?

9,10,11
if fractures could rupture spleen = bad news