Flashcards in Energy Balance/Surgical Anatomy Deck (50):
What percentage of energy for basal metabolism?
What percentage of energy for activity?
What percentage of energy for thermogenesis?
What is the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure?
double labeled water
O2-18 lost as water and CO2
deuterium is ONLY water lost
what happened to rats who were force fed then stopped and allowed to eat normally?
lost weight back to 'set point'
MC4 Receptor deletion in mice does what?
what happens with increase energy intake?
more energy expenditure like fidgiting
eating is modulated by what centre?
What does cocaine and amphetamine do to appetite?
What happened to mice with deleted orexin when they tested for hunger?
mice had narcolepsy
What does aMSH do to appetite besides maing you pigmented?
what happens to appetite when you damage the hypothalamus with a tumour removal for example?
could develop uncontrolled hunger: hypothalamic obesity
hypothalamic weight regulating mechanism responds to 3 tings:
higher coritcal centres
size of fat stores
food in gut
When ob mouse was attached to control what happened?
control mouse's leptin came in and made ob mouse skinny
leptin receptor mutation does what to attached control mouse?
the excess leptin from the diabetic mouse went into control and died cause of no appetite
leptin synthesized by which cells?
where is leptin brain receptor?
Leptin signals what?
size of fat stores
more fat in the cell = more/less leptin released?
will you always lose weight if you give more leptin?
not necessarily, could have leptin resistance from polymorphisms
insulin is long or short term?
insulin in brain =
insulin in body =
makes you hungry/gain weight
is liver sensitive to insulin?
glucose metabolism inhibits or enhances food intake?
what do long chain fatty acids-CoA (LCFA-CoA) do?
inhibit food intake
Malonyl-CoA does what?
inhibits CPT1 which is needed for LCFA-CoA metabolism so you gain weight
obesity: how much is genes? how much is environment?
Common hormone mutation problems for obesity? 3 things
does diet early in life affect obesity in future?
YES. children get imprinted with high or low energy diet and even if they get healthy diet later, they will gain weight
3 likely endocrine causes of weight loss:
addison's Disease (cortisol lack)
4 GI causes of weight loss:
4 infective causes of weight loss?
subacute bacterial endocarditis
5 malignant causes of weight loss:
Anorexia Nervosa onset is when?
Hallmark of Anorexia Nervosa?
distorted body image
4 medical complications of Anorexia Nervosa?
serotonin 1D and opioid delta receptor on chromosome 1 linked to?
5-HT2A receptor is linked to?
one study concluded ___% of variance in liability to Anorexia Nervosa could be genes.
sliding hernia is?
part of stomach above diaphragm
what is rolling paraesophageal hernia?
sphincter intact, part of side of stomach above diaphragm
what is volvulus hernia?
what is achalasia?
lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax due to abnormal peristalsis
2 things that cause small bowel obstruction?
what is ileal pouch operation?
small bowel is connected to rectum after removal of colon
What is Meckel's diverticulum?
congenital small intestine bulge: vestige of yolk stalk: 2% of pop
how many people will get colorectal cancer?
ventral herniae usually cause by?
underlying viscera due to bowel obstruction/strangulation