Energy Balance/Surgical Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Energy Balance/Surgical Anatomy Deck (50):
1

What percentage of energy for basal metabolism?

65-75%

2

What percentage of energy for activity?

10-15%

3

What percentage of energy for thermogenesis?

15-20%

4

What is the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure?

double labeled water
O2-18 lost as water and CO2
deuterium is ONLY water lost

5

what happened to rats who were force fed then stopped and allowed to eat normally?

lost weight back to 'set point'

6

MC4 Receptor deletion in mice does what?

obese mice

7

what happens with increase energy intake?

more energy expenditure like fidgiting

8

eating is modulated by what centre?

pleasure centres
hypothalamus

9

What does cocaine and amphetamine do to appetite?

inhibit

10

What happened to mice with deleted orexin when they tested for hunger?

mice had narcolepsy

11

What does aMSH do to appetite besides maing you pigmented?

inhibits appetite

12

what happens to appetite when you damage the hypothalamus with a tumour removal for example?

could develop uncontrolled hunger: hypothalamic obesity

13

hypothalamic weight regulating mechanism responds to 3 tings:

higher coritcal centres
size of fat stores
food in gut

14

When ob mouse was attached to control what happened?

control mouse's leptin came in and made ob mouse skinny

15

leptin receptor mutation does what to attached control mouse?

the excess leptin from the diabetic mouse went into control and died cause of no appetite

16

leptin synthesized by which cells?

adipocytes

17

where is leptin brain receptor?

choroid plexus

18

Leptin signals what?

size of fat stores

19

more fat in the cell = more/less leptin released?

more

20

will you always lose weight if you give more leptin?

not necessarily, could have leptin resistance from polymorphisms

21

insulin is long or short term?

long term

22

insulin in brain =

weight loss

23

insulin in body =

makes you hungry/gain weight

24

is liver sensitive to insulin?

yes, VERY.

25

glucose metabolism inhibits or enhances food intake?

inhibits

26

what do long chain fatty acids-CoA (LCFA-CoA) do?

inhibit food intake

27

Malonyl-CoA does what?

inhibits CPT1 which is needed for LCFA-CoA metabolism so you gain weight

28

obesity: how much is genes? how much is environment?

70% genes
30% environment

29

Common hormone mutation problems for obesity? 3 things

Leptin deficiency
Leptin receptor/signalling
decreases MSH

30

does diet early in life affect obesity in future?

YES. children get imprinted with high or low energy diet and even if they get healthy diet later, they will gain weight

31

3 likely endocrine causes of weight loss:

DM1
thyrotoxicosis
addison's Disease (cortisol lack)

32

4 GI causes of weight loss:

chronic pancreatitis
CF
inflammatory bowel
parasitic infection

33

4 infective causes of weight loss?

TB
subacute bacterial endocarditis
amoebic abscess
HIV

34

5 malignant causes of weight loss:

bowel
pancreas
liver
lymphoma
leukaemia

35

Anorexia Nervosa onset is when?

before 25

36

Hallmark of Anorexia Nervosa?

distorted body image

37

4 medical complications of Anorexia Nervosa?

amenorrhoea
lanugo hair
bradycardia
anaemia

38

serotonin 1D and opioid delta receptor on chromosome 1 linked to?

Anorexia Nervosa

39

5-HT2A receptor is linked to?

Anorexia Nervosa

40

one study concluded ___% of variance in liability to Anorexia Nervosa could be genes.

80%

41

sliding hernia is?

part of stomach above diaphragm

42

what is rolling paraesophageal hernia?

sphincter intact, part of side of stomach above diaphragm

43

what is volvulus hernia?

twisted stomach

44

what is achalasia?

lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax due to abnormal peristalsis

45

2 things that cause small bowel obstruction?

adhesions
herniae

46

what is ileal pouch operation?

small bowel is connected to rectum after removal of colon

47

What is Meckel's diverticulum?

congenital small intestine bulge: vestige of yolk stalk: 2% of pop

48

how many people will get colorectal cancer?

1:20

49

ventral herniae usually cause by?

incisional
underlying viscera due to bowel obstruction/strangulation

50

two types of groin herniae:

inguinal: direct/indirect more men
femoral: high risk more women