Hepatitis 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hepatitis 2 Deck (44):
1

Which hepatitis has a 30-50% perinatal infection rate if untreated?

hepatitis B

2

hepatitis B and C are transmitted mainly how?

sexual and IV drug

3

what are you chances of getting hepatitis C if you are IV user?

50-60%

4

hepatitis is ___ times more prevalant than HIV in Australia

18 times

5

hepatitis is ___ times more prevalant than HIV in Victoria

16 times

6

hepatitis B has how many walls? nonenveloped?

double walled with outer envelope and inner capsid

7

What are HBsAG particles?

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen particles (incomplete viruses)

8

Hep B preGenome has own polymerase?

Yes, pregenomic RNA

9

describe the extracellular Hep B genome? ds? ss? RNA? DNA?

dsDNA

10

4 general different reading frames for Hep B coding

core (c)
surface(s)
polymerase(p)
X

11

Why do you get lots of mutant Hep B viruses?

reverse transcription from RNA to dsDNA has a high error rate

12

Hep B penetration is where?

mucosal epithelia

13

Hep B replication is where?

Liver

14

High concentration of Hep B in body fluids? 3 places

blood
serum
wound exudates

15

Moderate concentration of Hep B in body fluids? 3 places

semen
vaginal fluid
saliva

16

3 Hep B modes of transmission:

Sexual
Parenteral-needle stick
Perinatal

17

Which moms are more likely to transmit Hep B perinatally?

HBeAg positive 'e antigen'

18

Hep B incubation period?

60-90 days
45-180 day range

19

Hep B jaundice by age? why?

5
dictated by immune response

20

which group has higher chronic infection of Hep B?

<5yr olds 30-90%

21

General trends for outcome of Hep B with age?

the younger you are, the more likely to have chronic Hep B infection but more asymptomatic. The older you are, the more symptomatic but the less chronic infection

22

Natural history of chronic Hep B infection? how long?

acute
chronic hepatitis
cirrhosis
liver cancer
death
30-50 years

23

Hep B recovery serology looks like how?

initial rise in IgM and HBsAg
Then as IgM goes down you have increased and sustained:
**Anti-HBs (surface protein)**
anti-HBc (core protein)

24

In chronic Hep B serology, what is missing?

Missing Anti-HBs
there is Anti-HBc

25

Why is a missing Anti-HBs bad for chronic Hep B?

the existing Anti-HBc is a poor anti-HBs so it persists

26

Chronic carrier of Hep B has what serology marker?

HBsAg positive

27

what is the most common cause of liver cancer?

Hep B sequelae

28

% of Hep B lifetime mortality?

~30%

29

How long from infection to cancer for Hep B?

10-30years

30

How much more likely are you to get hepatocellular carcinoma with Hep B carriers?

100x yo....

31

HBeAg indicates what?

active replication

32

HBsAg indicates?

general marker for infection

33

What is a marker of acute Hep B infection?

rising anti-HBc IgM

34

What is a marker of past or chronic Hep B infection?

anti-HBc IgG

35

when do you use HBV-DNA testing?

indicates active replication
used for escape mutants

36

3 current treatments for Hep B?

interferon alpha pegylated
nucleoside/tide analogues
new NCTP (sodium co-transporting polypeptide)

37

what kind of drugs are adefovir, tenofovir? for what? what do they target?

Hep B
nucleotide analogues
target polymerase function

38

What is 3TC/Lamivudine?

nucleoside analogue (no phasphate group)

39

Hep B vaccine is now cultured from?

yeast

40

Hep B vaccine protects from what? how many doses?

Hep B
Hep D
2-3 doses

41

how is Hep D like Hep B?

ssRNA with a delta antigen and encased in the Hep B surface antigen

42

How can you catch Hep D?

only infects in conjunction with Hep B

43

What happens when you get HBV and HDV coinfection?

severe acute disease
low risk of chronic infection

44

what happens in a HDV superinfection?

HDV after an already HBV+
get chronic HDV and liver infection