Shoulder/Elbow Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Jason's GI Block > Shoulder/Elbow Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Shoulder/Elbow Anatomy Deck (52):
1

describe synovial membrane?

highly vascular/neuro

2

what happens if you tear synovial membrane?

haemarthrosis

3

describe articular cartilage

on surface of bones in a joint
avascular
aneural

4

Fibrous capsule reinforced by 3 things

stabilizer muscles
intrinsic ligaments
extrinsic/accessory ligaments

5

what is the labrum for? 2 things

deepens glenoid
provides attachment site (e.g.. long head biceps)

6

what is intra-articular but extrasynovial in joints? purpose?

fat pad, used to distribute synovial fluid evenly during movement

7

What are discs and menisci for in joints? how are their blood and nerve supply?

weight bearing and shock absorption
blood and nerve supply to outer third

8

special feature of bursae?

may communicate with joint cavity/risk of infection spreading

9

characteristics of stable vs. mobile joints

congruent vs. incongruent articular surfaces
limited vs. increase ROM
tight vs. lax capsules/ligaments

10

4 main joints of the shoulder complex?

sternoclavicular
acromioclavicular
scapulothoracic
gleno-humeral

11

When do long bones ossify?

in utero at 8 weeks from transition from embryo to fetus

12

when do epiphyses appear?

generally after birth but if large baby could be before birth

13

What do the following humeral fractures endanger?
1. surgical neck
2. midshaft
3. supracondylar

1. axillary nerve
2. radial nerve
3. median nerve and brachial artery

14

difference between anatomical and surgical neck?

anatomical is end of capsule
surgical is common site of fracture

15

What is the point of the acromioclavicular joint?

give the shoulder girdle a 'hinge' to allow for scapulo-humeral rhythm and allow scapula to move along posterior chest well.

16

likely site of clavicle fracture?

max change of curvature between lateral 1/3 and medial 2/3

17

Key features of sternoclavicular joint? 3 things

intra-articular disc
strong capsule
costoclavicular ligament to limit movement

18

what does a intra-articular disc in the sternoclavicular joint do?

increases complexity of movement
lateral disc: elevation depression
medial disc: rotation about longitudinal axis

19

structures endangered during a sternoclavicular subluxation?

subclavian artery and vein

20

What are the coracoclavicular ligaments?

ligaments from coracoid process to clavicle: main stabilizers of acromioclavicular joint
prevent upward displacement of clavicle

21

what does the acromioclavicular ligament do?

prevent upward displacement of clavicle

22

acromioclavicular joint is strong or weak capsule?

weak

23

acromioclavicular subluxation grade 1,2,3?

1: stretched not torn
2. separation and AC ligaments torn
3. wide separation AC and coracoclavicular ligaments torn

24

5 layers of GH joint?

bones
labrum
capsule
tendons/rotator cuff
coraco-acromial ligaments/bursae

25

where does the capsule attach above and below the head of the humerus?

above: anatomical neck
below: surgical neck (makes pouch for increased ROM)

26

rotator cuff attachment blends into?

capsule

27

what happens if rotator cuff weak?

deltoid pull humerus upwards and lead to impingment of supraspinatus

28

what does the subacromial bursa do?

protects head of humerus from hitting acromion

29

subacromial bursa communicates?

Nope.

30

shoulder dislocation most common one is?

anterior-inferiorly

31

how would a posterior shoulder dislocation happen?

electric shock
epileptic fit

32

how to test if axillary nerve damaged by dislocation?

C5 dermatomes sensory test however it's not perfect as peripheral nerves often overlap

33

2 types of synovial joints of the elbow are?

hinge
pivot

34

elbow complex has two joints, how many synovial cavities?

one

35

capitulum vs. trochlea is where?

capitulum: lateral
trochlea: medial

36

What is in the fossae of distal humerus?

fat pads

37

what is the coronoid process?

part of the proximal ulnar that articulates with humerus

38

what can be mistaken for a fracture on x-ray?

epiphyses -usually straight rather than jagged fracture

39

3 main ligaments of elbow

lateral/radial collateral lig
medial/ulnar collateral lig
annular lig

40

what allows pronation and supination

the LCL attaches to annular ligament rather than a bone

41

what do the collateral ligaments resist in the elbow

abduction and adduction

42

max stability in elbow when?

full extension

43

what is the significance of carrying angle in elbow?

valgus could irritate ulnar nerve

44

where are the traction epiphyses in the distal humerus?

epicondyles

45

purpose of interosseus membrane?

allow pron/sup
transmit forces
attachment of muscles

46

What does the inferior RU joint have?

triangular fibrocartilage complex (disc)

47

in a 'ring' principle of bones what happens?

a fracture in one is associated with fracture in another

48

what does the distal RU joint disc do? what happens with age?

stabilizes the joint
more perforated with age

49

annular ligament in children is?

weaker more likely to dislocate with traction on extended arm

50

what is most common dislocation/fracture in elbow?

posterior dislocation with coronoid process fracture

51

whats the risk of a supracondylar fracture?

children more commonly damage brachial artery get Volkmann's ischemia and avascular necrosis of forearm muscles

52

what is suceptible to injury in medial epicondyle fracture?

ulnar nerve