Anatomy of the Shoulder Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy of the Shoulder Deck (50):
1

What are the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus?

Greater = lateral
Lesser = medial

2

What is the socket part of the ball and socket joint of the shoulder?

Glenoid cavity

3

What spinal level is the spine of the scapula level with?

T3

4

What spinal level is the inferior angle of the scapula level with?

T7

5

What are the 4 joints of the shoulder? Which is a "false" joint?

-Sternoclavicular
-Acromioclavicular
-Glenohumeral
-Scapulothoracic (false)

6

What is the only bony connection of the UE to the axial skeleton?

Sternoclavicular joint

7

What type of joint is the sternoclavicular joint?

Cartilaginous disc joint

8

What are the four ligaments that surround the sternoclavicular joint?

-Sternoclavicular (ant/post)
-Costoclavicular ligament
-Interclavicular ligaments

9

What are the ligaments that surround the AC joint? (3)

-Acromioclavicular
-Coracoclavicular
-Coracoacromial

10

What are the two components of the coracoclavicular ligament? Which is medial and which is lateral?

Trapezoid (lateral)
Conoid (medial)

11

What is the most mobile joint in the body?

Glenohumeral joint

12

What are the motions of the glenohumeral joint?

-Flexion/extension
-Abduction/adduction
-Medial/lateral rotation

13

Why is the glenohumeral joint relatively unstable?

Only holds about 1/3 of the humerus

14

Where is the glenoid labrum weakest?

Anteriorly and inferiorly

15

What primarily provides stability to the glenohumeral joint: muscles or ligaments?

Muscles

16

What are the three components of the glenohumeral ligament? Is this on the anterior or posterior part of the glenohumeral joint?

Superior
Middle
Inferior

Anterior part

17

What is the ligament that sits just above the glenohumeral ligament?

Coracohumeral ligament

18

What is the ligament that sits on the superior aspect of the glenohumeral joint?

Transverse humeral ligament

19

What is the function of the glenoid labrum?

Deepens the glenoid fossa

20

What is the muscle that sits atop the glenohumeral joint?

Supraspinatus

21

What is the muscle that sits posterior along the glenohumeral joint?

Infraspinatus

22

What is the muscle that sits posteriorly along the glenohumeral joint, but inferior to the infraspinatus?

Teres minor

23

What is the muscles that sits anterior to the glenohumeral fossa?

Subscapularis

24

What are the four muscles that comprise the rotator cuff?

-Supraspinatus
-Infraspinatus
-Teres minor
-Subscapularis

25

What are the spinal levels that comprise the brachial plexus?

C5-T1

26

What is scalenus anticus syndrome?

Compression of the brachial plexus/axillary artery between the scalenes

27

What is the Adson's sign, and what does it assess for?

Adson's sign is the loss of the radial pulse in the arm by rotating head to the ipsilateral side with extended neck following deep inspiration.

28

What is costoclavicular syndrome?

Downward movement of the clavicle against the first rib, with a resultant tendency to shearing of the neurovascular bundle

29

What is the costoclavicular test?

The examiner palpates the radial pulse and then draws the patient's shoulder down and back as the patient lifts their chest in an exaggerated "at attention" posture. A positive test is indicated by an absence or decrease in vigor of the pulse and implies possible costoclavicular syndrome.

30

What is pec minor syndrome?

Pec minor compression of the brachial plexus

31

What is the Wright's test?

Abduction of the arms bilaterally. Loss of radial pulse may indicate pec minor compression of the neurovascular bundle

32

What are the three main bursae of the shoulder?

-Subdeltoid
-Subacromial
-Subscapularis

33

What is the most common cause of bursitis?

Repetitive use

34

What is the innervation of the serratus anterior? What is significant about this?

Long thoracic nerve (SALT)
Sits superficial to the muscle, and is thus easily damaged

35

Injury to the long thoracic nerve causes what classic physical exam finding? Why?

Winged scapular d/t loss of innervation to the serratus anterior

36

What is the origin and insertion of the lat dorsi?

Spinous process of T6 to sacrum
Medial lip of the the intertubercular groove

37

What is the major muscle of shoulder flexion?

Deltoid

38

What is the major muscle of shoulder extension?

Deltoid

39

What are the muscles that are involved with medial rotation of the shoulder? (4)

*Subscapularis*
Teres major
Pectoralis major
Lat dorsi

40

What are the muscles that are involved with lateral rotation of the shoulder? (2)

Infraspinatus
Teres minor

41

What are the two muscles that are involved in abduction of the shoulder? Which initiates movement, and which carries it into full abduction?

Supraspinatus (initiates)
Deltoid (full abduction)

42

What are the two major muscles that are involved in adduction of the shoulder?

Pec major
Lat dorsi

43

What are the muscles that cause scapular elevation? (3)

Trap
Levator scap
Rhomboids

44

What are the two major muscles that cause scapular depression?

Pec minor
Trap

45

What is protraction of the scapula?

Sticking out the scapula (like hugging oneself)

46

What is retraction of the scapula?

Bringing the scapula back toward the thoracic cage

47

What is adhesive capsulitis?

Glenohumeral capsule becomes stiff and inflamed, restricting motion

48

What are the classic characteristics of a patient with adhesive capsulitis?

Female greater than 50 y/o, with a h/o DM and rotator cuff injury

49

Which should is usually affected with adhesive capsulitis: the dominant, or the non-dominant?

Non-dominant

50

What happens to postural muscles with strain? Phasic?

Postural = tight
Phasic = Loose