Scoliosis Flashcards Preview

OMM II > Scoliosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Scoliosis Deck (64):
1

What is the test that evaluates for scoliosis? What is assessed with this?

-Adam's forward bend test
-Assess rib prominence for rotation--will be opposite the side of the scoliosis

2

True or false: scoliosis usually has no symptoms

True

3

What are the s/sx of scoliosis when they occur?

Back pain
Rib pain
Breathing problems

4

What are the landmarks that should be palpated when evaluating scoliosis? (4)

-Iliac Crests
-ASIS
-PSIS
-Shoulders

5

What is the Cobb angle?

Angle between perpendicular lines drawn on the endplates (superior and inferior-most vertebrae) of the end vertebra

6

What degree of Cobb angle indicates scoliosis? Under this value dx = ?

10 degrees or more

Under = spinal asymmetry

7

What is the inter and intra observer reliability with Cobb angles?

5-7 degrees

8

How do we describe ("name") scoliosis?

Defined by the convexity

9

The location of scoliosis is defined by the vertebra that is (most/least) deviated, and called the apical vertebra

Most

10

Levoscoliosis has a SD of what?

(Type I)

Sidebent right, rotated left

11

What is the difference between structural and functional scoliosis?

Structural = fixed, that will not correct with OMT

Functional = partially or completely treated with OMT

12

True or false: an uncorrected functional curve may progress into a functional curve

True

13

What are the four majors types of scoliosis? Which is the most common?

-*Idiopathic*
-Congenital
-Neuromuscular
-Acquired

14

What causes congenital scoliosis?

Malformation of the vertebrae

15

What causes neuromuscular scoliosis?

Muscle weakness or spasticity (e.g. cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, muscular dystrophy)

16

What causes acquired scoliosis?

Tumor
Infx

17

What is the most common cause of scoliosis?

Idiopathic

18

When does congenital scoliosis begin?

During the first 6 weeks in uterine life

19

True or false: congenital scoliosis is thought to be genetic

False--- caused by environmental factors

20

What are the 3 subcategories of idiopathic scoliosis? What defines each of these?

-Infantile- (0-3 yrs)
-Juvenile *(4-9 yrs)
-Adolescent (more than 10 yo)

21

What percent of AIS require treatment?

3-9%

22

What is the F:M ratio of AIS?

10:1

23

Which is the more common type of AIS: right thoracic or left thoracic convexity?

Right

24

What is a double major AIS?

Thoracic and lumbar bent if different directions

25

Name the type of scoliosis: caused by muscular weakness

Neuromuscular

26

Name the type of scoliosis: most often progressive

Congenital

27

Name the type of scoliosis: Tumor or infx are examples of causes

Acquired

28

Name the type of scoliosis: 80% of all cases of scoliosis

idiopathic

29

Are you more likely to progress with scoliosis if you have it when you're younger or older?

Young

30

True or false: the larger the curve, the more likely to progress

True

31

True or false: double curves are less likely to progress

False

32

True or false: all else equal, males are more likely to progress

False--females

33

Curves measuring less than what degree at the end of growth, typically do not progress?

30 degree

34

Curves measuring more than what degree at the end of growth typically progress?

40 degrees

35

What are the two major outcomes of AIS?

-Stabilization
-Progression

36

What are the mobility morbidities with scoliosis?

-balance difficulties
-Increased risk for falls, and asymmetric lower joints

37

True or false: there is a strong correlation between the emotional problems and the degree of curvature of the scoliosis

False

38

Does scoliosis increase the risk of LBP with preg?

No

39

Does being pregnant increase the risk of progression of scoliosis?

No

40

Is there an increased risk for C-section for pregnant women with scoliosis?

No

41

What is the relative mortality of pts with scoliosis relative to the general population

Same

42

At what degree of scoliosis do breathing problems begin?

more than 70 degrees

43

What is the window of opportunity for surgical stabilization of scoliosis?

Progression of scoliosis may impair breathing so much that surgery is contraindicated, or will have increased mortality post surgery (Pneumonia etc)

44

Curves over what degrees decreases VC?

70

45

Curves over what degrees causes DOE?

90-100

46

Curves over what degrees causes alveolar hyperventilation, CO2 retention, pHTN, and right sided heart failure?

More than 100

47

When is bracing indicated for scoliosis?

-If still growing
-If scoliosis gets worse in 6 months or less

48

When is watchful waiting appropriate for scoliosis?

Still growing, but not severe enough for treatment

49

What defines mild, moderate, and severe scoliosis, in terms of cobb angles?

Mild = [10-20) degrees
Mod = [20-45]
Severe = more than 50

50

True or false: OMT is intended to completely straighten scoliosis

False

51

At what level (mild, mod, severe) should bracing be considered? Surgery?

Bracing = mod
Surgery =severe

52

When is scoliosis concerning?

Progression of the curvature during periods of rapid growth

Respiratory/cardio compromise

53

Cobb angles between what degrees in 12-14 years indicates surgery? What about in any age?

20-30 degrees

More than 30 degrees in any age

54

Progression of the Cobb angle of more than how many degrees indicates surgical referral?

More than 5 degrees

55

When is ortho referral for scoliosis not indicated?

-Incidental finding
-Cobb angle less than 10

56

What is the role of exercise in the treatment of scoliosis?

Will not stem progression, but may help prevent degenerative changes, and reduce pain

57

What is the role of OMT in scoliosis?

Decrease pain, increase ROM and function

58

True or false: OMT can stem the progression of scoliosis

False-- only treats the symptoms

59

What are the three major causes of functional scoliotic curves?

-Postural imbalance
-Focal muscle contraction
-Type II dysfunction

60

What are the three major steps in treating scoliosis with OMT?

-Treat the curve
-Treat transitional areas
-Treat spinal hypo-mobility

61

What should follow OMT treatments?

PT

62

What are the 3 M's with bracing?

Braces are more effective if scoliosis is:
-Moderate
-spine is Mobile
-Spine not Matured

63

What are the four main focuses of treatment of scoliosis with OMT?

-pain
-respiratory dysfunction
-Balance/proprioception
-psych issues

64

Which way does the spine rotate toward with scoliosis?

Opposite (just like a type I)