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Flashcards in Lymphatics and Full body treatment Deck (47):
1

What are the three components of the lymphatic system?

-Lymph
-Channels
-Organized lymph tissue

2

How soon will a human die if the lymph system stops functioning?

24 hours

3

What is lymph?

Clear, coagulable fluid that passes from the intercellular space into lymphatic vessels

4

What does lymph resemble?

Blood plasma

5

What are the cells that comprise lymph?

Lymphocytes
WBCs

6

What are the functions of lymph (4)?

-remove bacteria and proteins
-Transport fat
-Supply lymphocytes
-Bathe and nourish the tissues

7

What is the most organized lymph tissue?

Lymph nodes

8

What are lymph nodes?

Organized lymphatic tissues dispersed along the course of the lymph vessels

9

How many deep lymph nodes are there?

400-450

10

What are the two major functions of the lymph node?

-Filter lymph via macrophages
-Activates the immune system if microorganisms are detected

11

Where isn't the lymphatic system present? (4)

-Brain/spinal cord
-Epidermis
-Endomysium
-Bones, teeth, bone marrow

12

What type of lymph tissue is found in the bone marrow, epidermis, brain/spinal cord, and endomysium?

Pre-lymphatics, which eventually empty into lymphatic vessels

13

What are the three main cellular structural components of the lymph system?

-Endothelial cells
-Valves
-Anchoring filaments

14

What are the three main organizations of the lymphatic system?

-Superficial system
-Deep system
-Organ-specific system

15

What connects the superficial and deep lymphatic systems? What is the function of these?

-Perforator vessels
-Conveys lymph toward the surface

16

What are the 4 functions of the lymphatics?

-Nutrition
-maintaining fluid balance
-purification and cleansing of tissues
-Defense

17

How many liters of fluid leak out of the capillaries daily? What percent of this drains back into capillaries? Where does the rest go?

-30 L
-90% drains back into the capillaries
-10% drains into lymph

18

What percent of plasma proteins are carried back to the vascular system via lymph?

50%

19

What is the primary means of return of proteins after their efflux from the arterial capillaries?

Lymphatics

20

What are the four regions of the lymphatic system, based on the vessel walls?

-Lymphatic capillaries
-Precollectors
-Collectors
-Lymphatic trunks

21

What does the cisterna Chyli drain?

Abdomen, pelvis and lower limbs

22

Where is the cisterna chyli located?

Anterior right side of the L1-L2 vertebral bodies, but behind the right crus

23

What is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body?

Left lymphatic duct.

24

Where does the LLD drain?

Left jugulo-subclavian junction

25

What are the Peyer's patches?

Clusters of the lymphoid system in the walls of the small intestines

26

Where are Peyer's patches most densely located?

Small intestinal villi

27

True or false: the greater the lymphatic flow, the greater the immunity?

True

28

What is the effect of increased interstitial fluid pressure on the lymphatics?

Also increased interstitial fluid

29

What happens to the anchoring filaments when excess fluid enters the tissues?

They pull on the wall of the lymph capillaries

30

What happens to the lymphatic structures when tissues are compressed?

Pressure inside the capillary increases and the overlapping edges of the endothelial cells close like valve

31

Where does lymph fluid collect?

Into the collecting lymphatics

32

True or false: there is an intrinsic pumping mechanism of the large lymphatic vessels

True

33

What happens when a collecting lymphatic duct becomes distended?

Smooth muscles in the wall contract

34

True or false: valves exist in all lymphatic channels

True

35

What is the overall effect of lymphatic vessel contraction?

Moves lymph toward terminal drainage sites

36

What are the four diaphragms that alter lymph flow?

-Falx cerebri/tentorium
-Sibson's fascia
-Thoracoabdominal diaphragm
-Pelvic/urogenital diaphragm

37

What are the two effects produced by the diaphragms that cause lymph to move?

Pressure differentials and direct masage

38

What are the three factors that ensure the the diaphragms move in unison?

-Neuro control
-Fascial attachments
-Pressure differentials

39

According to Dr. Zink, the flow rate of lymph back to the heart is directly proportional to what

Rate of respiration
Quality of respiration

40

What is the "heart" of the lymphatic system?

Thoracoabdominal diaphragm

41

What is the effect of OMM on the lymphatic system?

-Removes restrictions
-Promotes and augments flow

42

What are the steps of improving lymphatic flow?

-Assess for CCP
-Bring back to CCP if not
-Treat CCP

43

What are the two types of cancer that most commonly use the lymphatic system to metastasize?

Melanomas
Carcinomas

44

What are the three common reasons for reduced lymphatic return?

-Genetic defects
-Filariasis
-Surgery

45

Decreased plasma protein levels does what to lymph return?

Decreased

46

Increased interstitial protein levels does what to lymph return?

Decreased

47

What are the three contraindications to lymphatic treatments?

-Osseous fractures
-Bacterial infections with a temp greater than 102
-Certain carcinomas