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Flashcards in Anemia 3 Deck (36):
1

What are the three classification schemes for hemolytic anemia?

Site of RBC destruction
Acquired vs congenital
MOA RBC desctruction

2

What are the signs/symptoms of hemolytic anemia, apart from the usual anemia symptoms?

Jaundice
Urine discoloration
Gallstones
Splenomegaly

3

What is the preferential site of RBC destruction in hemolytic anemia? What does this cause?

Spleen
Splenomegaly

4

What happens to haptoglobin in hemolysis? Why? How does this differ between intra and extravascular causes?

Decreased--bound to Hgb

No difference

5

What happens to LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) in hemolytic anemia? Why?How does this differ between intra and extravascular causes?

Elevated since this enzyme is found in RBCs, and is spilt out

No difference

6

What happens to the reticulocyte count with hemoyltic anemia?

Elevated (>100,000 suggest a hyperproliferative bone marrow)

7

What happens to the indirect bilirubin in hemolytic anemia?

Elevated

8

What happens to urine hemosiderin levels in hemolysis? How does this differ between intra and extravascular causes?

In intravascular ONLY, increased

9

Is LDH specific to hemolytic anemia?

Yes

10

What is the Coombs test result in hemolytic anemias?

Positive

11

What is the mode of inheritance for G6Pd deficiency?

X linked

12

What is the most common enzymatic deficiency that leads to hemolytic anemia?

G6PD deficiency

13

What are the findings on a PBS with G6PD deficiency?

Heinz bodies

Bite cells

14

What are the Heinz bodies seen in G6PD deficiencies?

chunks of denatured Hgb

15

What food should pts with G6PD deficiencies avoid at all costs?

Fava beans

16

What is the MOA of hemolytic anemia d/t pyruvate kinase deficiency?

Loss of structural proteins since there is a lack of ATP

17

What is the major difference between G6PD deficiency and pyruvate kinase deficiency?

Pyruvate kinase deficiency is not susceptible to increased oxidate stress

18

Are there periphearl blood smear abnormalities with pyruvate kinase deficiency?

No

19

What is the usual presentation of pyruvate kianse deficiency?

neonatal jaundice

20

True or false: sickle cell syndrome/disease usually has some degree of hemolytic anemia

True

21

Pts with sickle cell anemia are susceptible to what infections?

By encapsualted bacteria and salmonella

22

What causes the recurrent renal problems in pts with HbS?

recurrent infarcts

23

What are the symptoms of sickle cell trait?

Usually asymptomatic, but can have painless hematuria

24

What is Hgb SC disease?

Both HbS and HbC, causing rigid (but not sickled) Hgb

25

Why is a splenectomy used as a treatment for heriitary sphereocytosis?

Because spleen will capture any cells that are not correctly shaped

26

What are the two major complications of heriditary spherocytosis?

Splenomegaly
Cholelithiasis

both from dsetruction of RBCs

27

Is the spleen normally palpable?

No

28

What is the cause of paroxysmal nocturnal hmoglobinuria?

Defective PIG-A gene

29

What is the triad for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria?

Hemolysis
Pancytopenia
Thromboses

30

How do you diagnose PNH?

Specific flwo cytometry assays for CD55 and CD59

31

What is the treatment for PNH?

corticosteroids
Anticoagulants

32

What two antibody types usually cause hemolytic anemia?

IgG or IgM

33

What is the test to check for autoimmune hemolytic anemia?

coombs test

34

What is the treatment for autoimmune hemolytic anemia?

Corticosteroids

35

Abs that react with RBC membrane proteins are of what type? What if they react to polysaccharides?

RBC proteins = IgG (warm)

Poly = IgM (cold)

36

What abx type is associated with hemolysis?

PCNs
Cephalosporins