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Flashcards in Malaria Deck (62):
1

What is the type of mosquitoes that cause malaria here?

Anopheles

2

What is the causative agent of malaria?

Plasmodium spp.

3

What are the five species of plasmodium

Falciparum
Vivax
Malariae
Ovale
Knowlesi

4

Where is falciparum found?

World wide

5

Where is vivax found?

Sub-saharan africa

6

Where is p. malariae found?

World wide

7

Where is p. ovale found?

Africa

8

Where is p. Knowlesi found?

Malaysia

9

Most cases of malaria are caused by what two strains?

P. Falciparum
P. Vivas

10

What is the general life cycle of malaria?

Hepatocytes, then RBCs

11

What are the two forms of malaria that can lie dormant in the liver for years at a time?

Vivax
Ovale

12

What is malarial paroxysm?

Synchronous release of malarial parasites, destruction of RBCs causing the symptoms of malaria

13

What are the three stages of malaria?

cold stage (rigors, dry skin)
Hot stage (HA, palps, confusion)
Sweat stage

14

What are the strains of malaria that cause symptoms every 48 hours?

vivax
Ovale
Falciparum

15

What are the strains of malaria that cause symptoms every 72 hours?

Malariae

16

What is the blood disease that prevents infection with malaria falciparum?

Beta thalassemia

17

What are the strains of malaria that cause symptoms every 24 hours?

Knowlesi

18

What is the incubation period for falciparum?

1-2 weeks

19

What is the most severe complication with falciparum malaria?

Cerebral malaria--red cells get sticky, and bind to endothelial cells, causing decreased organ perfusion

20

True or false: jaundice is never a symptom of malaria

False--falciparum can cause this

21

What are the primary symptoms of vivax/ovale infx?

flu like

22

What is the most serious complication of vivax/ovale?

Splenic rupture

23

What is the incubation period for vivax/ovale?

2-3 weeks

24

What is the incubation period of malariae?

3-6 weeks

25

What is symptomatic recrudescence?

Hard to see low level or replication of malariae, so can recur

26

What is the most common complication of malaria?

Anemia

27

What are the three mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of malaria?

1. RBC lysis by parasite
2. Suppression of erythropoiesis (TNFa, IL1)
3. Destruction of RBCs by spleen

28

Why is plasmodium falciparum one of the most dangerous?

No preference for RBCs

29

What are the blood cells that vivax and ovale infx?

Reticulocytes

30

What are the blood cells that malariae infx?

Old RBCs

31

What are the three major side effects of plasmodium?

Splenomegaly
Hypoglycemia
Cerebral malaria

32

What are the two cytokines that are circulating when RBCs lyse with malaria? How does this affect glycemic levels?

TNFalpha
IL1

Inhibits gluconeogenesis

33

What is the gold standard for diagnosing malaria?

PBS

34

What are the histological findings of falciparum?

Purple bananas

35

What are the histological findings of vivax and ovale?

Bloated RBCs
Schuffner dots

36

What are the histological findings of malariae?

Band forms
NO stippling

37

What are the diseases that protect pts from malaria?

Sickle cell
Thalassemia
G6PD deficiency

38

True or false: drug resistance to malaria is a major concern

True

39

What is babesiosis?

Babesia parasite transmitted by ticks that normally fed on rodents

40

What are the symptoms of babesiosis?

Fever, chills, myalgias
Hemolytic anemia

41

True or false: most cases of babesiosis are asymptomatic

True

42

Who are the people are susceptible to babesiosis?

Elderly, asplenic
Immunosuppressed

43

What are the histological characteristics of babesiosis?

Maltese cross

44

What is the treatment for babesia?

Quinine and clindamycin

45

Most drugs against malaria target what?

Asexual blood forms

46

What does clinical cure mean vs radical cure?

Clinical = feel better
Radical = total destruction of parasite

47

What is the drug that kills malaria? How useful is this?

Chloroquine

High resistance rates

48

Where is chloroquine still effective?

West of the panama canal

49

What is the therapeutic to toxic ratio of quinine?

Poor

50

What is the major side effect of quinine?

Hypoglycemia
Cinchonism

51

What is the derivative form of quinine?

Mefloquine

52

What is the abx that is useful against malaria?

Doxycycline

53

What are the major side effects of doxycycline?

photosensitivity dermatitis

54

What is the drug that kills the liver forms of malaria?

Primaquine

55

What are the major toxicities of primaquine?

RBC lysis with G6PD deficiency

56

What disease should you screen for before giving primaquine?

G6PD deficiency

57

When is primaquine administered?

After clinical cure achieved with other antimalarial

58

What are the two drugs that are combined in malarone?

Atovaquone
Proguanil

59

What is the prophylaxis treatment for malaria without chloroquine resistant plasmodium?

Chloroquine

60

What is the prophylaxis treatment for malaria with chloroquine resistant plasmodium?

Mefloquine, malarone, doxycycline

61

What are the adverse effects of mefloquine?

CNS effects

62

What is the treatment for babesiosis?

Quinine and clindamycin