Flashcards in Malaria Deck (62):
What is the type of mosquitoes that cause malaria here?
What is the causative agent of malaria?
What are the five species of plasmodium
Where is falciparum found?
Where is vivax found?
Where is p. malariae found?
Where is p. ovale found?
Where is p. Knowlesi found?
Most cases of malaria are caused by what two strains?
What is the general life cycle of malaria?
Hepatocytes, then RBCs
What are the two forms of malaria that can lie dormant in the liver for years at a time?
What is malarial paroxysm?
Synchronous release of malarial parasites, destruction of RBCs causing the symptoms of malaria
What are the three stages of malaria?
cold stage (rigors, dry skin)
Hot stage (HA, palps, confusion)
What are the strains of malaria that cause symptoms every 48 hours?
What are the strains of malaria that cause symptoms every 72 hours?
What is the blood disease that prevents infection with malaria falciparum?
What are the strains of malaria that cause symptoms every 24 hours?
What is the incubation period for falciparum?
What is the most severe complication with falciparum malaria?
Cerebral malaria--red cells get sticky, and bind to endothelial cells, causing decreased organ perfusion
True or false: jaundice is never a symptom of malaria
False--falciparum can cause this
What are the primary symptoms of vivax/ovale infx?
What is the most serious complication of vivax/ovale?
What is the incubation period for vivax/ovale?
What is the incubation period of malariae?
What is symptomatic recrudescence?
Hard to see low level or replication of malariae, so can recur
What is the most common complication of malaria?
What are the three mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of malaria?
1. RBC lysis by parasite
2. Suppression of erythropoiesis (TNFa, IL1)
3. Destruction of RBCs by spleen
Why is plasmodium falciparum one of the most dangerous?
No preference for RBCs
What are the blood cells that vivax and ovale infx?
What are the blood cells that malariae infx?
What are the three major side effects of plasmodium?
What are the two cytokines that are circulating when RBCs lyse with malaria? How does this affect glycemic levels?
What is the gold standard for diagnosing malaria?
What are the histological findings of falciparum?
What are the histological findings of vivax and ovale?
What are the histological findings of malariae?
What are the diseases that protect pts from malaria?
True or false: drug resistance to malaria is a major concern
What is babesiosis?
Babesia parasite transmitted by ticks that normally fed on rodents
What are the symptoms of babesiosis?
Fever, chills, myalgias
True or false: most cases of babesiosis are asymptomatic
Who are the people are susceptible to babesiosis?
What are the histological characteristics of babesiosis?
What is the treatment for babesia?
Quinine and clindamycin
Most drugs against malaria target what?
Asexual blood forms
What does clinical cure mean vs radical cure?
Clinical = feel better
Radical = total destruction of parasite
What is the drug that kills malaria? How useful is this?
High resistance rates
Where is chloroquine still effective?
West of the panama canal
What is the therapeutic to toxic ratio of quinine?
What is the major side effect of quinine?
What is the derivative form of quinine?
What is the abx that is useful against malaria?
What are the major side effects of doxycycline?
What is the drug that kills the liver forms of malaria?
What are the major toxicities of primaquine?
RBC lysis with G6PD deficiency
What disease should you screen for before giving primaquine?
When is primaquine administered?
After clinical cure achieved with other antimalarial
What are the two drugs that are combined in malarone?
What is the prophylaxis treatment for malaria without chloroquine resistant plasmodium?
What is the prophylaxis treatment for malaria with chloroquine resistant plasmodium?
Mefloquine, malarone, doxycycline
What are the adverse effects of mefloquine?