Flashcards in Clinical Labs Deck (72):
What is anisocytosis?
a medical term meaning that a patient's red blood cells are of unequal size
What is poikilocytosis?
Abnormally shaped RBCs
What does normocytic mean?
Normal size of RBCs
What is the range of RBC volume?
What does macrocytic mean?
Larger than average size of RBCs
What are the three main etiologies of anemia?
What does MCV measure?
Mean corpuscular volume (how large the RBCs are)
What is the normal % of lymphocytes?
What is the normal % of monocytes?
What is the normal % of eosinophils?
What is the normal range of WBCs?
What is the normal range of RBCs?
What is the normal platelet count?
What is the normal % of neutrophils?
What is the normal % of basophils?
What does the reticulocyte count asses?
Assess the erythropioetic activity
What does ESR help to distinguish?
Active vs non-active disease
What is the final resort if you cannot determine the cause of an anemia?
Bone marrow exam
What is the normal percentage of reticulocytes?
What is the formula for the corrected reticulocyte count if there is anemia?
How do you distinguish between retriculocytes and mature RBCs?
Stain for RNA
What is the most common reason for anemia?
What is a chronic disease that causes anemia? Is this mico or macrocytic?
Are thalessemias micro or marcocytic anemias?
Does Fe deficiency anemia present as micro or marcocytic?
What is siderblastic anemia? Is it micro or macrocytic?
a form of anemia in which the bone marrow produces ringed sideroblasts rather than healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes). It may be caused either by a genetic disorder or indirectly as part of myelodysplastic syndrome, which can evolve into hematological malignancies (especially acute myelogenous leukemia)
What are the three major tests for microcytic anemias?
What is the single best test for iron studies? What does it measure?
Measures circulating fraction of iron storage
What is the gold standard for diagnosin mild beta-thalassemias?
What is the serum iron in iron deficiency anemia? Anemia of chronic disease?
What is the TIBC in iron deficiency anemia? Anemia of chronic disease?
High in IDA
Low in ACD
What is the transfer saturation in iron deficiency anemia? Anemia of chronic disease?
What is the serum ferritin in iron deficiency anemia? Anemia of chronic disease?
Low in IDA
increased in ACD
What is the marrow iron in iron deficiency anemia? Anemia of chronic disease?
absent in IDA
increased in ACD
What is the most common type of auto-immune hemolytic anemia?
What are the two types of hemolytic anemia from SLE? What are the antibodies involved in each?
Warm (IgG antibodies)
Cold (IgM antibodies)
Wha are the two types of allo-immune hemolytic anemias?
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
What is the difference between direct and indirect Coomes test?
Direct = uses pts RBCs to detect antibodies. (antibody on antibody)
Indirect = detects antibodies in pts serum
When is the indirect Coombs test used?
For fetal testing of hemolytic anemia
Elevated neutrophils = what kind of infection?
Elevated lymphocytes = what type of infection?
Elevated eosinophils = what type of infection?
Parasitic or allergic
What are lymphomas?
Neoplasms that arise as discrete masses (like spleen, lymph nodes)
What are leukemias?
Lymphoid nepplasms with involvement of blood and bone marrow
What is the only way to differentiate leukemias that are coming from B cell vs T cells?
Immunophenotyping (identifying cell types by protein expression)
What is FISH used to detect?
What are the protein markers for B cells?
What are the protein markers for T cells?
What are the two ways to perform immuphenotyping?
What are the three factors that you need to consider when assessing a pt for leukemias/lymphomas?
Are the masses associated with lymphomas painful or painless?
What are the characterisitcs that are evaluated with H&E uner high power?
Immature lymphoid neoplasms come for what cells?
Mature lymphoid neoplasms come from where?
What are the findings of IHC if there is a B cell lymphoma?
Only one type of ig light chain produced
What are the PCR findings of b cell lymphomas?
Ig heavy chain gene rearrangement
Loss of specific CD antigen = what cell type lymphoma?
What are the PCR findings for T cell lymphoma?
T cell receptor gene rearrangement
What are the five characteristics looked at when determining a neoplasm?
What are the five main categories of lymphomas?
What is the most common cause of tumors in pts under 5 years old?
What is the most common cause of tumors in pts 5-9 years old?
What is the most common cause of tumors in children 10 -19?
What is the first stage of lymphoma?
Single lymph node region or extralymphatic site
What is the second stage of lymphoma?
Two or more LN regions or extralymphatic site on the same side of the diaphragm
What is the third stage of lymphoma?
LN regions or extralymphatic site on both sides of the diaphragm
What is the fourth stage of lymphomas?
Disseminated or diffuse inolvement of one or more extralymphatic sites
What does the A stand for in lymphoma staging? B?
What is the packed cell volume?
Same as hematocrit
What is the mean corpuscular Hb?
he average mass of hemoglobin per red blood cell in a sample of blood
What is the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration?
measure of the concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cells