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Flashcards in Clinical Labs Deck (72):
1

What is anisocytosis?

a medical term meaning that a patient's red blood cells are of unequal size

2

What is poikilocytosis?

Abnormally shaped RBCs

3

What does normocytic mean?

Normal size of RBCs

4

What is the range of RBC volume?

80-100 fL

5

What does macrocytic mean?

Larger than average size of RBCs

6

What are the three main etiologies of anemia?

Blood loss
Impaired production
Impaired destruction

7

What does MCV measure?

Mean corpuscular volume (how large the RBCs are)

8

What is the normal % of lymphocytes?

25-50%

9

What is the normal % of monocytes?

2-12%

10

What is the normal % of eosinophils?

0-5%

11

What is the normal range of WBCs?

4-11

12

What is the normal range of RBCs?

4.5-6

13

What is the normal platelet count?

150-400

14

What is the normal % of neutrophils?

50-74%

15

What is the normal % of basophils?

0-2%

16

What does the reticulocyte count asses?

Assess the erythropioetic activity

17

What does ESR help to distinguish?

Active vs non-active disease

18

What is the final resort if you cannot determine the cause of an anemia?

Bone marrow exam

19

What is the normal percentage of reticulocytes?

0.5% -1.5%

20

What is the formula for the corrected reticulocyte count if there is anemia?

(HCT/45)*retic count

21

How do you distinguish between retriculocytes and mature RBCs?

Stain for RNA

22

What is the most common reason for anemia?

Fe deficiency

23

What is a chronic disease that causes anemia? Is this mico or macrocytic?

renal failure
Microcytic

24

Are thalessemias micro or marcocytic anemias?

Micro

25

Does Fe deficiency anemia present as micro or marcocytic?

Micro

26

What is siderblastic anemia? Is it micro or macrocytic?

a form of anemia in which the bone marrow produces ringed sideroblasts rather than healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes).[1] It may be caused either by a genetic disorder or indirectly as part of myelodysplastic syndrome,[2] which can evolve into hematological malignancies (especially acute myelogenous leukemia)

Micocytic

27

What are the three major tests for microcytic anemias?

Serum Fe
TIBC
Serum ferritin

28

What is the single best test for iron studies? What does it measure?

Serum ferritin
Measures circulating fraction of iron storage

29

What is the gold standard for diagnosin mild beta-thalassemias?

Hb electrophoresis

30

What is the serum iron in iron deficiency anemia? Anemia of chronic disease?

Both low

31

What is the TIBC in iron deficiency anemia? Anemia of chronic disease?

High in IDA
Low in ACD

32

What is the transfer saturation in iron deficiency anemia? Anemia of chronic disease?

both low

33

What is the serum ferritin in iron deficiency anemia? Anemia of chronic disease?

Low in IDA
increased in ACD

34

What is the marrow iron in iron deficiency anemia? Anemia of chronic disease?

absent in IDA
increased in ACD

35

What is the most common type of auto-immune hemolytic anemia?

SLE

36

What are the two types of hemolytic anemia from SLE? What are the antibodies involved in each?

Warm (IgG antibodies)
Cold (IgM antibodies)

37

Wha are the two types of allo-immune hemolytic anemias?

Transfusion reactions
Hemolytic disease of the newborn

38

What is the difference between direct and indirect Coomes test?

Direct = uses pts RBCs to detect antibodies. (antibody on antibody)

Indirect = detects antibodies in pts serum

39

When is the indirect Coombs test used?

For fetal testing of hemolytic anemia

40

Elevated neutrophils = what kind of infection?

Bacterial

41

Elevated lymphocytes = what type of infection?

Viral

42

Elevated eosinophils = what type of infection?

Parasitic or allergic

43

What are lymphomas?

Neoplasms that arise as discrete masses (like spleen, lymph nodes)

44

What are leukemias?

Lymphoid nepplasms with involvement of blood and bone marrow

45

What is the only way to differentiate leukemias that are coming from B cell vs T cells?

Immunophenotyping (identifying cell types by protein expression)

46

What is FISH used to detect?

Chromosomal aberrations

47

What are the protein markers for B cells?

CD19
CD20
CD21
CD22

48

What are the protein markers for T cells?

CD3
CD2
CD4
CD8

49

What are the two ways to perform immuphenotyping?

Immunohistochemisty
Flow cytometry

50

What are the three factors that you need to consider when assessing a pt for leukemias/lymphomas?

Age
Location
Sites/involvment

51

Are the masses associated with lymphomas painful or painless?

Painless

52

What are the characterisitcs that are evaluated with H&E uner high power?

Size
Nucleus
Chromatin
Cytoplasm

53

Immature lymphoid neoplasms come for what cells?

Lymphoblasts

54

Mature lymphoid neoplasms come from where?

Mature lymphocyte

55

What are the findings of IHC if there is a B cell lymphoma?

Only one type of ig light chain produced

56

What are the PCR findings of b cell lymphomas?

Ig heavy chain gene rearrangement

57

Loss of specific CD antigen = what cell type lymphoma?

T cell

58

What are the PCR findings for T cell lymphoma?

T cell receptor gene rearrangement

59

What are the five characteristics looked at when determining a neoplasm?

Clincial features
Morphology
Immunophenotype
Cytogenetics
Molecular analysis

60

What are the five main categories of lymphomas?

Precursor B
Peripheral B
Precursor A
Peripheral A
Hodgkin lymphoma

61

What is the most common cause of tumors in pts under 5 years old?

Acute leukemia

62

What is the most common cause of tumors in pts 5-9 years old?

Acute leukemia/brain

63

What is the most common cause of tumors in children 10 -19?

Lymphomas

64

What is the first stage of lymphoma?

Single lymph node region or extralymphatic site

65

What is the second stage of lymphoma?

Two or more LN regions or extralymphatic site on the same side of the diaphragm

66

What is the third stage of lymphoma?

LN regions or extralymphatic site on both sides of the diaphragm

67

What is the fourth stage of lymphomas?

Disseminated or diffuse inolvement of one or more extralymphatic sites

68

What does the A stand for in lymphoma staging? B?

Asymptomatic
B= symptomatic

69

What is the packed cell volume?

Same as hematocrit

70

What is the mean corpuscular Hb?

he average mass of hemoglobin per red blood cell in a sample of blood

71

What is the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration?

measure of the concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cells

72

What is the red cell distribution width?

a measure of the range of variation of red blood cell (RBC) volume that is reported as part of a standard complete blood count. Usually red blood cells are a standard size of about 6-8 μm in diameter.