Flashcards in Pathologies of Anemia Deck (48):
What is the definition of anemia?
Decreased RBC mass
What is the practical definition of anemia?
low Hb or HCT
Is anemia a symptom, or a disease?
What are the three general etiologies of anemia?
Increased blood loss
Impaired RBC production
Increased RBC destruction
What is the most common reason for chronic anemia?
Lesion of GI tract (ulcer)
What is fanconi anemia?
Defects in stem cell depletion
What are the nutritional deficiencies associated with anemia?
Vit B12/folic acid
What is the underlying cause of erythropoietin deficiency?
What is aplastic anemia?
What causes EPO deficiency?
What type of anemia are hereditary sphereocytosis?
RBC membrane disorders
What type of anemia are hereditary elliptocytosis?
RBC membrane disorder
What are the two major enzymatic deficienies that cause anemia?
Glycolytic enzymes (pyruvate kinase)
What specific virus can cause hemolytic anemia?
What is PIGA deficiency ?
What are the causes of antibody mediated anemia?
What is the MOA of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia?
What is the MOA of cardiac trauma anemia?
defect cardiac valves
What chemical will cause anemia?
What disease will cause anemia via sequesstration in mononuclear phagocyte system?
What is the normal size of an RBC?
What is the normal diameter of WBCs?
What is the zone of morphology on a PBS? What is the significance of this?
End of the smear
Where RBCs are spread out appropriately
What does normochromic mean?
Normal amount of Hb
The white center of a RBC is about what proportion of the total diameter of the RBC? What if it is bigger than this? Lower?
Bigger indicates hypochromic
Lower = hyperchromic
What is poikilocytosis?
variation in shape of RBCs relative to each other
What is anisocytosis?
Term to describe the relative size of RBCs in a smear. Minimal = all are the same
What are Howell-jolly bodies?
Purple nuclear remnants that indicate asplenic pts
Cells without central pallor are referred to as what?
Cell with central pallor >1/3 in diameter are referred to as what?
What is polychromasia?
Multiple colors of a RBC
What does polychromasia indicate?
high amunt of reticulocytes = Anemia
What causes the bluish appearance of reticuloytes?
RNA that is still present in the reticulocyte
Presence of nucleated RBCs in a PBS indicates what?
What are spherocytes? What two diseases are these found in?
Smaller, hyperchromic RBCs that indicates sphereocytosis or hemolytic anemia
What are schistocytes?
What are the two conditions that schistocytes are common in?
Other hemolytic anemias
Basophilic stippling is caused by what? (3)
Tiny blue colored dots in a RBC =?
One large dot in a RBC = ?
What is the color change that occurs with maturation of RBCs?
Blue to red
Defects in heme synthesis can result from what?
A larger than normal RBC may be what?
What are the four common causes of macrocytic anemia?
Reticulocytes over what percent is abnormal?
What happens to intravascular water when there is an anemia?
Shift from interstitial fluid compartment
What are the two factors that determine the clinical presentation of blood loss?
Rate of hemorrhage