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Flashcards in Pathologies of Anemia Deck (48):
1

What is the definition of anemia?

Decreased RBC mass

2

What is the practical definition of anemia?

low Hb or HCT

3

Is anemia a symptom, or a disease?

Symptom

4

What are the three general etiologies of anemia?

Increased blood loss
Impaired RBC production
Increased RBC destruction

5

What is the most common reason for chronic anemia?

Lesion of GI tract (ulcer)
Gynecological disturbances

6

What is fanconi anemia?

Defects in stem cell depletion

7

What are the nutritional deficiencies associated with anemia?

Vit B12/folic acid
Fe deficiency

8

What is the underlying cause of erythropoietin deficiency?

Renal failure

9

What is aplastic anemia?

***

10

What causes EPO deficiency?

Renal failure

11

What type of anemia are hereditary sphereocytosis?

RBC membrane disorders

12

What type of anemia are hereditary elliptocytosis?

RBC membrane disorder

13

What are the two major enzymatic deficienies that cause anemia?

G6PD deficiency
Glycolytic enzymes (pyruvate kinase)

14

What specific virus can cause hemolytic anemia?

parvovirus B19

15

What is PIGA deficiency ?

***

16

What are the causes of antibody mediated anemia?

***

17

What is the MOA of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia?

DIC

18

What is the MOA of cardiac trauma anemia?

defect cardiac valves

19

What chemical will cause anemia?

Pb

20

What disease will cause anemia via sequesstration in mononuclear phagocyte system?

Hypersplenism

21

What is the normal size of an RBC?

7-8 micrometers

22

What is the normal diameter of WBCs?

8-9 micrometers

23

What is the zone of morphology on a PBS? What is the significance of this?

End of the smear
Where RBCs are spread out appropriately

24

What does normochromic mean?

Normal amount of Hb

25

The white center of a RBC is about what proportion of the total diameter of the RBC? What if it is bigger than this? Lower?

1/3

Bigger indicates hypochromic

Lower = hyperchromic

26

What is poikilocytosis?

variation in shape of RBCs relative to each other

27

What is anisocytosis?

Term to describe the relative size of RBCs in a smear. Minimal = all are the same

28

What are Howell-jolly bodies?

Purple nuclear remnants that indicate asplenic pts

29

Cells without central pallor are referred to as what?

Hyperchromic

30

Cell with central pallor >1/3 in diameter are referred to as what?

Hypochromic

31

What is polychromasia?

Multiple colors of a RBC

32

What does polychromasia indicate?

high amunt of reticulocytes = Anemia

33

What causes the bluish appearance of reticuloytes?

RNA that is still present in the reticulocyte

34

Presence of nucleated RBCs in a PBS indicates what?

hemolytic anemia

35

What are spherocytes? What two diseases are these found in?

Smaller, hyperchromic RBCs that indicates sphereocytosis or hemolytic anemia

36

What are schistocytes?

broken RBCs

37

What are the two conditions that schistocytes are common in?

DIC/HUS
Other hemolytic anemias

38

Basophilic stippling is caused by what? (3)

**Pb poisoning**
Infx
Drug/EtOH exposure

39

Tiny blue colored dots in a RBC =?

Basophilic stippling

40

One large dot in a RBC = ?

Howell-Jolly body

41

What is the color change that occurs with maturation of RBCs?

Blue to red

42

Defects in heme synthesis can result from what?

Fe deficiency
Siderblastic anemia

43

A larger than normal RBC may be what?

Reticulocyte

44

What are the four common causes of macrocytic anemia?

Vit/B12 deficiency
EtOH use
Liver disease
Reticulocytosis

45

Reticulocytes over what percent is abnormal?

>3%

46

What happens to intravascular water when there is an anemia?

Shift from interstitial fluid compartment

(hemodilution)

47

What are the two factors that determine the clinical presentation of blood loss?

Rate of hemorrhage
Whether internal/external

48

When will reticulocytes appear if there is anemia?

reticulocytes