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Hematology > Immunohematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunohematology Deck (52):
1

What is the the study of immunohematology?

Study of antigen-antibody reactions in the blood

2

What are antigens?

Anything that prompts the immune system to form antibodies

3

What is the purpose of antigens on RBCs?

Related to cellular integrity or function

4

What are the three types of antibodies that transfusion medicine is concerned with?

IgM
IgA
IgG

5

What does it mean when blood bankers classify antibodies based on clinical significance?

Does it cause hemolytic transfusion reactions

6

What does it mean when blood bankers classify antibodies/antigens based on source of sensitization?

Natural or immune

7

What does it mean when blood bankers classify antibodies on class?

IgM or IgG

8

What does it mean when blood bankers classify antibodies based on allo vs auto?

Non-self or self

9

What does it mean when blood bankers classify antibodies on optimal temp?

Warm vs cold

10

What are the three things that carb antigens react in?

Cell adhesion
Malignancy
Infectious disease

11

What type of molecule are H, A, and B antigens?

carb

12

What are the two types of Lewis antigen? What type of chemical is this?

Le^s and Le^b
Carb

13

What class of antibodies do red cell antigens tend to stimulate?

IgM

14

Do carb antigens span the RBC membrane? Do proteins?

Proteins yes, carbs no

15

What type of chemical are Rh antigens?

Protein

16

What type of chemical are duffy, kidd, and kell antigens?

Proteins

17

What class of antibodies do proteins antigens tend to stimulate?

IgG

18

What class of antibody does glycophorin A stimulate? Is this serious?

IgM

No

19

What class of antibody does glycophorin B stimulate?

IgG

Yes

20

What are the antibodies that are responsible for intravascular hemolytic anemia? Extravascular?

Intra = IgM
Extra = IgG

21

How do IgM antibodies kill targeted foreign RBCs

MAC complex

22

How are IgG antibodies stimulated to kill RBCs?

Consumed by phagocytes, stimulate immune system

23

Do IgM antibodies cross the placenta? IgG?

IgM no
IgG yes

24

Does the Lewis antigen cause hemolytic disease of the newborn? Why or why not?

No, because not expressed until later in life

25

What are the most important blood groups for transfusion?

ABO

26

What must be taken into account when transfusing someone?

RBC antigens and plasma antibodies

27

What is the H antigen on RBCs?

Antigen that is present on 99.9% of all RBCs

28

What is the phenotype of people who lack the H antigen?

Bombay phenotype

29

What is the chemical structure of the H antigen?

alpha1 -> 2fucose

30

What is the only way to change your RBC phenotype?

Bone marrow transplant

31

ABO antigens develop around what week of development? What percent is found relative to adult life?

6th week
50%

32

How long does it take to reach adult levels of ab?

3 yo

33

True or false: whatever ABO antigen you lack, you automatically develop antibodies to

True

34

What class of antibodies are anti-ABO antibodies?

IgM

35

True or false: ABO antibodies weaken with age

True

36

Rh + patients have what antigen?

D

37

What class are the antibodies against ABO antigen?

IgG

38

What are the other major Rh system antigens besides D?

C
E

39

DCe- R1 antigens are common among which ethnicity?

Caucasians

40

Dce -Ro antigens are common among which ethnicity?

African americans

41

dce- r antigens are common among which ethnicity?

Rh negative

42

True or false: d antigen indicates Rh -

False

43

Is Rh - = Rh 0?

No

44

Is the D antigen AD or AR?

AD--85% of population has it

45

What is the antibody that is involved in HDFM?

IgG

46

What is the classic example of HDFN?

Mom (gravid 2+) is D negative, baby is D positive

47

When is RhoGAM administered?

28 weeks and once again after delivery

48

What is in RhoGAM?

Anti-D Abs (passive immunity to D)

49

What is the indirect Coombs test?

Add pts serum to donor RBCs and look for abs with antihuman antibodies

50

What is the direct Coombs test?

Add pts RBCs to donor serum, add antihuman abs

51

Can the Coombs test detect complement?

yes

52

What is involved in compatibility testing?

Antibody screen for ABO, Rh, or ABO/D


Donor RBCs and pt plasma