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Flashcards in Radiation overview Deck (52):
1

What are the three most common cancers in men?

prostate
lung and bronchus
colon/bladder

2

What are the three most common cancers in women?

breast
lung
colorectal

3

What are the four most common causes of death d/t CA in men?

Lung
prostate
Colorectal
Pancreas

4

What are the four most common causes of death d/t CA in women?

lung
breast
colorectal
pancreas
ovary

5

What are the four basic patterns of spread?

Local growth
local extension
lymph node mets
Hematogenous mets

6

Anyone who has M stage (__) or higher has what***

***

7

What are the four modalities of medical therapy treatment for CA?

chemo
hormone
biological
vaccine

8

What is the role of radiation?

Replace or complement surgery

9

What CAs are exclusively treated with radiation?

anal cancer
small cell lung (mostly)
Stage IIIB NSCLC

10

small cell lung cancers are found exclusively in whom?

those who smoke

11

What is the role of radiation in esophageal CA?

ok to treat without surgery

12

What is the role of radiation in breast cancer?

removes margins after surgery

13

What is the role of radiation in skin cancer?

After surgery adjuvant

14

What is the role of radiation in prostate cancer?

adjuvant to surgery

15

What is the role of radiation in uterine/endometrial cancer?

adjuvant

16

Dose of radiation is measured in what?

gray

17

What is the most common timing of radiation dosing?

Daily over multiple weeks

18

Why are small doses over a long period of time needed to treat CA?

Kill tumors, and not normal cells

19

What is radiosensitive?

Tumor "melts" with radiation

20

What is radio responsive?

melts quickly

21

What is brachytherapy?

beads that radiate small halos of radiation

22

What is the linear accelerator used in radiation therapy?

machine that emits photons and particles

23

Why is linear accelerators used for kids?

no leftover radiation

24

What is the MOA of radiation in treating tumors?

double stranded breaks in the tumors

25

What is the wanted relationships between tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability?

very wide difference

26

What is the relationship between radiation dose and cell kill?

Non-linear, but negative trend

27

What is the relationship between oxygen and radiation effectiveness?

More oxygen = more kill

(thus need multiple doses to get to hypoxic center)

28

What is hyperfractionation?

very small doses of radiation x2/day

29

What is the dosage for standard fractionation?

180-200 cGy /day

30

What is hypofractionation?

Massive dose of radiation to tumors (melanoma)

31

What is the "long shoulder" of CA?

Little effect until high doses of radiation

32

What cancer is cured with radiation?

prostate CA

33

What cancer have a neoadjuvant therapy with radiation?

esophageal CA

34

What cancer has radiation as an adjuvant therapy?

breast CA

35

Palliative treatment with radiation is used with what CAs?

brain mets causing neurological symptoms

36

What is the simulation part of the TP process?

see if pt will tolerate the restraints needed to treat CA

37

What is the treatment planning part of TP process?

angle beam correctly

38

What are the 5 levels of radiation treatments?

1. non planned
2. 2d
3. 3d
4. IMRT
5. SRS/SBRT

39

What is 3D-CRT?

Designs the treatment fields so that the angle of the treatment treats the tumor and avoids normal structures as much as possible

40

What is IMRT?

like 3D-CRT but different portions of the treatment get different doses of the radiation via very small radiation "shots"

41

What is cranial stereotactic radiosurgery?

Using super small doses in the brain

42

What is gross tumor volume?

Gross demonstrable extent of the tumor

43

What is the CTV?

Margi on GTV that accounts for disease spread

44

What is ITV?

CTV + internal margin for physiological movements

45

What is PTV?

CTV or ITV + setup margin for pt movement

46

What is OAR?

organ at risk/critical structure

47

What is the fusion bit for planning?

Taking different imaging modalities to label out the tumor

48

True or false: photons are "skin sparing"

True

49

Which are most effective at deep tissue tumors: photons or electrons

Photons

50

What is a multileaf collimator?

lead block to focus radiation

51

What is image guided radiation therapy?

Using imaging with implanted markers to target tumors that move physiologically to align tumors

52

What is cone beam IGRT?

CT scan on each visit, to allow for comparison of soft tissue anatomy