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Flashcards in Animal Growth Section Deck (95)
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31

What is the name of the common breed that has double muscling

Belgian blue and peadmonte

32

What other animal has the myostatin defect for double muscling but not the extreme end of it

Limousine

33

What does double muscling in cattle cause

More muscle fibers

Larger muscle fibers

Higher% white muscle fibers

Less body fat

High incidence of dystocia (calving difficulty)

34

What is dystocia

Calving difficulty

35

What substitution in myostatin particularly limousine produce an intermediate phenotype without significant negative effects on birth and growth traits

F94L

It changes only one amino acid so less noticeable

36

What two things contribute to post natal muscle growth

DNA accretion

Protein accumulation

37

What happens during DNA accretion

Nuclei incorporated into pre existing muscle fibers by satellite cells

Increase muscle fibers capacity for gene expression and growth

38

What accounts for most of post natal muscle growth /hypertrophy

Protein accumulation

39

When does accumulation of myofibrillar proteins occur? (Protein accumulation)

When protein synthesis exceeds protein degradation

40

What = accumulation /accretion

Synthesis - breakdow

Exp: if you break your leg, breakdown would exceed synthesis=atrophy

41

What is lysine

Amino acid

Biggest restriction on protein accumulation

42

what is a cluster of fat cells called

Lobbule

43

How much does lipid account of tissu

How much do triglycerides account of lipids

76-94%

90-99%

44

How much can the volume of an adipocyte cell increase

Greater than 1000 fold (hypertrophy is important)

45

In the phases of fattening, ________ is followed by _______ but ____________ of new fat cells (hyperplasia) can occur throughout life

Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, recruitment

46

Early in life the cause of the increase in adipose tissue is due to

Increase in # of fat cells (hyperplasia)

47

What is the downside of fat

There is no limit on how much fat you can have

48

Fat cells are all created equal true or fals

False they are not all created equal

49

What is beta-adrenergicagonists

Hormone that binds receptor

50

When an animal is Nutritionally restricted, what happens?

?

51

What is the FDA hormone for growth regulation in pigs

Paylean (ractopamine)

52

What does paylean do

Increases muscle
Decreases fat
Improves efficiency
Saves feed
Reduces waste
Increases stress

53

Name some FDA approved growth regulators in cattle

Estradiol
Progesterone
Optaflexx

54

Which growth regulation in cattle is dismissed

Zilmax

55

What are the oldest and longest improved growth regulations in cattle

Estradiol
Progesterone

56

What is one of the more common growth regulations in cattle

Optaflexx

57

What is the withdrawal time for growth regulations in cAttle

What is the noteable exception to what is not approved as growth prominent

There is none

Growth hormone

58

What is a half life

How long growth promontent stays in body

59

In the bathtub scenario what does optaflexx do with beta agonists

zilmaxx?

Optaflexx- primarily increases protein synthesis or "water flow"

Zilmaxx- primarily reduces protein degradation or "water draining"

60

Def of nutrition

Science that deals with nutrients in food and feed as they relate to health and life