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Biomedical Sciences Core > ANS Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in ANS Physiology Deck (12):
1

“Autonomic”

•Autonomous -“___ ___”

•_____

•Previously seen in discussions of “Homeostasis”

•Involuntary – it runs itself

–In fact we cannot ___ (directly) activate it

 

Independent of the rest of the NS

Can accommodate for changes in the body that can upset the homeostatic status of the body

Sometimes can ____ and put you in a bad state. 

“Autonomic”

•Autonomous -“Self-ruling”

•Independent

•Previously seen in discussions of “Homeostasis”

•Involuntary – it runs itself

–In fact we cannot consciously (directly) activate it

 

Independent of the rest of the NS

Can accommodate for changes in the body that can upset the homeostatic status of the body

Sometimes can overcompensate and put you in a bad state. 

2

NS (peripheral)

Homeostasis is essential for the ____ of the cells 

NS (peripheral)

Homeostasis is essential for the survival of the cells 

3

For Today!

Explore the Autonomic (Efferent) Nervous System

•Divisions: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

–“fight-or-flight” …and “rest-and-digest”

•Nomenclature used, based on origin, function

–“thoraco-lumbar”…and “cranial-sacral”

•Origin and Distributions of cell bodies and the nerves that provide these functions

–“pre-ganglionic” …and “post-ganglionic”

•Neurotransmitters and receptors that give rise to

   the predictable responses

  -“adrenergic” …and “cholinergic”, “nicotinic” and “muscarinic”

*Efferent=“outflow”or“away from CNS”; Afferent= “inflow”, or “towards CNS”   also may be compared to “motor” vs “sensory”

*Adrenergic= ____/ _____  and____e/____/___

 

Outer portions look kinda white. Bc of myelin

Cell bodies are insideà grey


Ouflow to muscle

Nerve cell bodies are in ventral horn

Dorsal ganglion have sensory input cell bodies

Parasympathetic: cranial sacral

TL: sympathetic

Model for cranial outflow is ___ ___

That nerve is everywher! Has a profound influence

Preganglionic fiber has ganglion in the CNS

For sympathetic: this is short.

Nt at the end of the line for parasymp is ___

Nt at end of line for sympathetic is ___

Preganglionic for both para and symp is ___

For Today!

Explore the Autonomic (Efferent) Nervous System

•Divisions: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

–“fight-or-flight” …and “rest-and-digest”

•Nomenclature used, based on origin, function

–“thoraco-lumbar”…and “cranial-sacral”

•Origin and Distributions of cell bodies and the nerves that provide these functions

–“pre-ganglionic” …and “post-ganglionic”

•Neurotransmitters and receptors that give rise to

   the predictable responses

  -“adrenergic” …and “cholinergic”, “nicotinic” and “muscarinic”

*Efferent=“outflow”or“away from CNS”; Afferent= “inflow”, or “towards CNS”   also may be compared to “motor” vs “sensory”

*Adrenergic= Adrenaline/Epinephrine  and NorAdrenaline/NorEpinephrine/Levophed

 

 

 

Outer portions look kinda white. Bc of myelin

Cell bodies are insideà grey


Ouflow to muscle

Nerve cell bodies are in ventral horn

Dorsal ganglion have sensory input cell bodies

Parasympathetic: cranial sacral

TL: sympathetic

Model for cranial outflow is vagus nerve.

That nerve is everywher! Has a profound influence

Preganglionic fiber has ganglion in the CNS

For sympathetic: this is short.

Nt at the end of the line for parasymp is Ach

Nt at end of line for sympathetic is NE

Preganglionic for both para and symp is Ach

4

Examples of How Changes in ANS Discharge Can Affect the Body

 

Sympathetic NS:

Cardiac muscle: Fast, strong contractile force

Positive _____ activity. Increases the HR

Increased strength of contraction: Positive ____

Sweat is intended to arive at the surface and pprovide a cooling benefit.

Exception: Post ganglionic nt is usually NE

Sympathetic ____ activity for sweat glands (here it is Ach)

Examples of How Changes in ANS Discharge Can Affect the Body

 

Sympathetic NS:

Cardiac muscle: Fast, strong contractile force

Positive chronotropic activity. Increases the HR

Increased strength of contraction: Positive inotrop

Sweat is intended to arive at the surface and pprovide a cooling benefit.

Exception: Post ganglionic nt is usually NE

Sympathetic cholinergic activity for sweat glands (here it is Ach)

5

 

The Basic Model for ANS Innervation
Anatomical relationships and Nomenclature

 

Symp: Pre is short. Post is long

Para:

Pre nt is always ___

Post nt: Symp: ___, Para: __

The Basic Model for ANS Innervation
Anatomical relationships and Nomenclature

 

Symp: Pre is short. Post is long

Para:

Pre nt is always Ach

Post nt: Symp: NE, Para: Ach

6

 Distribution, Roles & Neurotransmitters of the Two ANS Divisions

 

 

Nerve to____: nicotinic

Nerve to____: muscarinic (in most cases it goes to muscle)

This is important bc receptors are highly specific. That becoems important in sympathetic NS as well.

Adrenal Medulla acts like the postganglionic fiber.

Gut: parasympathetic: Gut motility, secretions

Blood Vessel: Certain blood vessels have ___ ___

Two kinds of receptors

1)Alpha : Response of those recetors in response of catacholamine will lead to _____à There isn’t enough blood to fill vessels in the body.

2)Beta: when it contacts another grouping on the catacholamine, will lead to ____

Pylorector muscle that makes ___ stick up controlled by the 

 Distribution, Roles & Neurotransmitters of the Two ANS Divisions

 

Nicotinic receptor:

Muscarinic receptor:

Nerve to nerve: nicotinic

Nerve to muscle: muscarinic (in most cases it goes to muscle)

This is important bc receptors are highly specific. That becoems important in sympathetic NS as well.

Adrenal Medulla acts like the postganglionic fiber.

Gut: parasympathetic: Gut motility, secretions

Blood Vessel: Certain blood vessels have certain receptors

Two kinds of receptors

1)Alpha : Response of those recetors in response of catacholamine will lead to vasoconstrictionà There isn’t enough blood to fill vessels in the body.

2)Beta: when it contacts another grouping on the catacholamine, will lead to vasodilation.

Pylorector muscle that makes hair stick up controlled by the 

7

Innervation of Organs By the ANS

Sympathetic: Dilate eyes. Increase lateral eye sight

Syncapi

Orthostatic hypotension

Innervation of Organs By the ANS

Sympathetic: Dilate eyes. Increase lateral eye sight

Syncapi

Orthostatic hypotension

8

Comparison of
Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic  Responses

 

Most innervated blood vessels:

Lungs:

Bladder:

Saliva:

Genitals

Comparison of
Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic  Responses

9

Summary of Characteristics
of the ANS Divisions

Beta: relate to cardiovascular system

Beta blockers

Receptor resides in that vessel

Drug could have chemical groupings that are alpha or beta agonists

They discovered that there were B1 and B2

In Heart: ___ HR and strength of contraction

In Lungs: ___  smooth muscle.

 

Receptors

 

Summary of Characteristics
of the ANS Divisions

Beta: relate to cardiovascular system

Beta blockers

Receptor resides in that vessel

Drug could have chemical groupings that are alpha or beta agonists

They discovered that there were B1 and B2

In Heart: Inccreased HR and strength of contraction

In Lungs: Relax smooth muscle.

10

 Characteristics of the
ANS vs Somatic Nervous Systems

 

Nt at effector:

Effects at effector organs:

Higher centers involved:

ANS:____ ____, ___, ____, ___ ___ ___

Somatic:  ___ __, ___ ___, ___ ___, ____, __ __

 

B

B
C

B

C

 Characteristics of the
ANS vs Somatic Nervous Systems

11

Examples of ANS Dysfunction
*Begin to appreciate what is seen in a clinical setting
and how it contributes to a differential diagnosis

Horner Syndrome – ___ and ____abnormalities (Johann Horner-Ophthalmologist)

•Loss of ____ _____ action

•____eyelid (lost ____ muscle)

•____ of the face (lost facial sweat gland function)

All because of some lesion in the ____ pathways

Examples: strokes affecting descending spinal Sympathetic tracts;  upper thoracic nerve root lesions or trauma or cancer; neck trauma affecting the postganglionic axons in the neck.

Examples of ANS Dysfunction
*Begin to appreciate what is seen in a clinical setting
and how it contributes to a differential diagnosis

Horner Syndrome – eye and facial abnormalities (Johann Horner-Ophthalmologist)

•Loss of sympathetic pupilodilator action

•Drooping eyelid (lost Muller muscle)

•Dryness of the face (lost facial sweat gland function)

All because of some lesion in the sympathetic pathways

Examples: strokes affecting descending spinal Sympathetic tracts;  upper thoracic nerve root lesions or trauma or cancer; neck trauma affecting the postganglionic axons in the neck.

12

Examples of ANS Dysfunction

Erectile Dysfunction – parasympathetic neurons in the corpora cavernosa of the penis fail to cause the release of adequate amounts of ___ ___ (NO).  The NO is needed to cause enhanced synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (____) in vascular smooth muscle.  The GMP is required to cause vascular smooth muscle ____ which will cause the penile erectile tissue to become ___ with blood.

GMP activity is terminated by the enzyme,_____(type 5). 

However, if we have a phosphodiesterase INHIBITOR and we still have an intact _____ system then we can make a TV commercial in old bath tubs by the lake!

Warning!  When treating suspected anginal episodes (i.e. in cases of myocardial ischemia) do NOT administer nitroglycerin to patients who report taking phosphodiesterase inhibitors!!!

  *This has been featured in movies AND in commercials for

    “ED” drugs as a “cautionary statement”.

Examples of ANS Dysfunction

Erectile Dysfunction – parasympathetic neurons in the corpora cavernosa of the penis fail to cause the release of adequate amounts of nitric oxide (NO).  The NO is needed to cause enhanced synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) in vascular smooth muscle.  The GMP is required to cause vascular smooth muscle relaxation which will cause the penile erectile tissue to become engorged with blood.

GMP activity is terminated by the enzyme, phosphodiesterase (type 5). 

However, if we have a phosphodiesterase INHIBITOR and we still have an intact parasympathetic system then we can make a TV commercial in old bath tubs by the lake!

Warning!  When treating suspected anginal episodes (i.e. in cases of myocardial ischemia) do NOT administer nitroglycerin to patients who report taking phosphodiesterase inhibitors!!!

  *This has been featured in movies AND in commercials for

    “ED” drugs as a “cautionary statement”.