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Flashcards in Building Blocks Deck (32):
1

Nomenclature of Carbs


•Carbon atoms are ____ starting with the carbon____
•Carbon atoms are given ____, starting with the carbon _____
 

Order of oxidation
 

Identification of carbon atoms in a compound: Look at pic


•Carbon atoms are numbered, starting with the carbon atom with the most oxidized group.
•Carbon atoms are given Greek letters, starting with the carbon atom next to carbon atom with most oxidized group.
 

Order of oxidation
COOH
CO
OH
CH

2

Monosaccharides 


•Simplest carbohydrates are known as 
•Empirical formula for monosaccharaides is 
•Monosaccharides with 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7 carbon atoms are known as
•Simple sugars can either be ____ or ____
 


•Simplest carbohydrates are known as monosaccharides.
•Empirical formula for monosaccharaides is (CH2O)n.
•Monosaccharides with 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7 carbon atoms are known as trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses and heptoses.
•Simple sugars can either be ketoses (ketone group) or aldoses (aldehyde group). 
 

3

Properties of Simple Sugars
•Isomer – 


a chiral center (asymmetric center)


•Can exist as ___ or ___ which are _____.  Non 
•Sugars in human tissues are in the ___

 


•Isomer – compounds composed of the same elements, in the same number, but organized differently through bonding or 3-D spatial arrangement.
•A carbon atom having four different functional groups attached to it is known as a chiral center (asymmetric center). 
•Can exist as two forms D and L enantiomers (stereoisomers). Non superimposable mirror images.
•Sugars in human tissues are in the D form.

 

4

Epimer

Epimers – stereoisomers that differ in the position of the  hydroxyl group at only one of the asymmetric carbons.

5

Monosach

•Monosaccharides form ____
•Six member ring structures of ____ are known as ____, while 5 member ring structures of ____ and ___ are known as _____
•Carbon 1 is known as the _____ C
•When the hydroxyl group bound to the anomeric carbon is below the plane it is in the ___ form, if it is above the plane it is in the ___ form.
•The two forms exist in ____. Process known as_____.
 


•Monosaccharides form ring structures.
•Six member ring structures of hexoses are known as pyranoses, while 5 member ring structures of pentoses and fructose are known as furanoses.
•Carbon 1 is known as the anomeric carbon.
•When the hydroxyl group bound to the anomeric carbon is below the plane it is in the a form, if it is above the plane it is in the b form.
•The two forms exist in equilibrium. Process known as mutarotation.
 

6

Disaccharides 


•The ____ group of the ____ carbon can react with ___ or __ group to form a ____ linkage. (__ or __ ____).
•Disaccharides contain ____ ____ joined together by a _______ ____
•This could be a ___ ____ ___ linkage. ___ or ___.
 


•The hydroxyl group of the anomeric carbon can react with OH or NH group to form a glycosidic linkage. (O or N linked).
•Disaccharides contain two monosaccharides joined together by a glycosidic link.
•This could be a 1-6, 1-2 or a 1-4 linkage. a or b.
 

7

Common Disaccharides

____ (common sugar)
consists of ___ and ___ joined by a ____ linkage ( _____________)

 

____ (in milk)
___ + ____ joined by a ___ linkage

 

____ (hydrolyzed product of startch)
___ +____ joined by a ____ linkage


•Sucrose (common sugar) consists of a glucose and fructose  molecule joined by a 1a – 2b glycosidic linkage (two anomeric C are facing each other)

.•Lactose (in milk) – a galactose and glucose molecule joined by a b 1-4 glycosidic linkage.

•Maltose (hydrolyzed product of starch) – two glucose molecules are joined together by an a 1-4 glycosidic linkage.
 

8

Oligosaccharides/Polysaccharides 


•___ or more monosaccharides are linked by glycosidic bonds to form ____ (_ – _ units) and ______.
•Polysaccharides are ___ or ___ structures
•Examples –(____, ____ ,____)

 


•3 or more monosaccharides are linked by glycosidic bonds to form oligo (3 – 12 units) and polysaccharides.

•Polysaccharides are linear or branched structures.

•Examples –(Starch, glycogen, cellulose)

 

Anything greater than 12 is polysach

9

Common Modifications of Carbohydrates

 

____

____

___

Methylation

Amination

Phosphorylation

10

Glycoproteins


•Sugar attached to the___ ____  of ____ or the ___ ____ of ___ or ____ residues of proteins.
•Found in  _____ ___
•Functions in ___ ____.
 


•Sugar attached to the amide nitrogen of Asparagine or the oxygen atom of serine or threonine residues of proteins.
•Found in cell membranes.
•Functions in cell adhesion.
 

11

Complex Glycoproteins are called Proteoglycans


-Repeating units of ______ (_______)
-Then Attached to ____ -->known as proteoglycans
-Proteoglycans are important components of ____


-Repeating units of glycosaminoglycans (disaccharides containing a derivative of an amino sugar)
-Attached to protein – known as proteoglycans
-Proteoglycans are important components of cartilage

12

Structure of Nucleic Acids

•_____ are the monomeric units of nucleic acids.
•A nucleotide consists of a ____, _____(together known as a nucleoside) and ____.
•Two types of nucleic acids –____ and ____
 


•Nucleotides are the monomeric units of nucleic acids.
•A nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, pentose sugar (together known as a nucleoside) and phosphate.
•Two types of nucleic acids – DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) and RNA (ribose nucleic acid)

 

13

Structure of a Deoxyribonucleotide


•DNA consists of purine bases ___and pyrimidine bases ____
____ sugar is deoxyribose. Carbon atoms are numbered ____when a base is attached.

Carbon atom linked to the nitrogenous base is labeled ____.

Purine: 

Pyrimidines: 

Deoxyribose has ___ on C 


•DNA consists of purine bases Adenine (A) and Guanine (G) and pyrimidine bases Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T).
•Pentose sugar is deoxyribose. Carbon atoms are numbered 1’-5’ when a base is attached. Carbon atom linked to the nitrogenous base is labeled 1’.

Purine: bycyclic

Pyrimidines: single ring

C 2 has H instead of OH

14

Deoxyribonuleic Acid (Watson and Crick Model)


•DNA and RNA are ____ consisting of linear sequences of nucleotides joined by ___-___ _____bonds between the sugars.
•DNA strand has ____  (5’ and 3’ end) 
•Consist of____ polynucleotide strands held together by ____ between the _____ of each strand.
•The two polynucleotide strands run ____ to one another.
•The overall structure of DNA is ____ hand double helix.
•Complementary base pairing occurs. A pairs with T and C pairs with G.
•Structure is further stabilized by ___ ____. (___ ____)
 


•DNA and RNA are polynucleotides consisting of linear sequences of nucleotides joined by 3’ – 5’ phosphodiester bonds between the sugars.
•DNA strand has polarity  (5’ and 3’ end) 

•Consist of two polynucleotide strands held together by H-bonds between the bases of each strand.
•The two polynucleotide strands run antiparallel to one another.
•The overall structure of DNA is right hand double helix.
•Complementary base pairing occurs. A pairs with T and C pairs with G.
•Structure is further stabilized by base stacking. (hydrophobic interactions)

 

15

Different Forms of DNA

Z: ____ hand helix.
Distance between bases is ___.
Number of bases per turn is___ .
Formed____.
Formation linked to ____

B: ____ structure
Predominantly found ___.
___ hand helix.
Distance between  bases is ____.
Number of bases per turn is___ 

A:
____ hand helix.
Similar to the ____ form, but is more ___.
Distance between bases is ____.
Number of bases per turn is___.
Predominates in _____

Z: Left hand helix. Distance between bases is 3.8 A. Number of bases per turn is 12. Formed transiently in cells. Formation linked to transcription initiation.

B: Watson and Crick Structure. Predominantly found in vivo. Right hand helix. Distance between  bases is 3.4 A. Number of bases per turn is 10.4 

A:Right hand helix. Similar to the B form, but is more compact. Distance between bases is 2.3 A. Number of bases per turn is 11. Predominates in DNA-RNA hybrids.

16

Ribonucleic Acid


•RNA exists as a ____, but can form _____. (___ ____ structures)
•Consists of a polynucleotide chain held together by 3’ to 5’ phosphodiester bonds.
•Nitrogenous base composition is A, C, G and Uracil. Thymine is replaced by Uracil.
•The pentose sugar is ____ instead of deoxyribose.

The Hydrogen is replaced by ______ at the ____position of the sugar.

 


•RNA exists as a single strand, but can form secondary structures within the chain. (stem loop structures)
•Consists of a polynucleotide chain held together by 3’ to 5’ phosphodiester bonds.
•Nitrogenous base composition is A, C, G and Uracil. Thymine is replaced by Uracil.
•The pentose sugar is ribose instead of deoxyribose. The Hydrogen is replaced by OH group at 2’ position of the sugar.

 

17

Vitamin Derived Cofactors

•Vitamins are ____molecules that are needed in ____ amounts in the diets of ____. (Can not be _____  some higher organisms)
•Vitamin deficiency can generate _____ in all organisms requiring  these molecules.

•Vitamins can be grouped according to 
•Many ___ ____ are ____ from ____ soluble vitamin precursors.

•Cofactors are 
 

•Vitamins are organic molecules that are needed in small amounts in the diets of some higher animals. (Can not be synthesized in  some higher organisms)
•Vitamin deficiency can generate diseases in all organisms requiring  these molecules.•Vitamins can be grouped according to whether they are soluble in water or in nonpolar solvents. (water soluble and fat soluble vitamins)
•Many enzyme cofactors are derived from water soluble vitamin precursors.•Cofactors are required for some enzymes to function.
 

18

Cofactors

B1

B2

B6

Nicotinic Acid

Pantothenic Acid

Biotin

Folic Acid

B12

19

B1 

Vitamin: AKA

Coenzyme:

FCN

Thiamine

Thiamine Pyrophosphate

Aldehydre Transfer

20

B2

Vitamin: AKA

Coenzyme:

FCN

Riboflavin

Flavin Adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

Oxidation Reduction

 

Carriers of electrons in catabolic and anabolic reactions

21

B6

Pyridoxine

Pyridoxal phosphate

Group transfer to or from aa

22

Nicotinic Acid (niacin)

NAD+/NADP+

Oxidation Reduction

 

Carriers of electrons in catabolic and anabolic reactions

23

Pantothenic acid

B5

Coenzyme A

Acyl Group Transfer

24

Biotin

Biotin-lysine adducts (biocytin)

ATP dependent carboxylation and carboxyl group transfer

 

25

Follic Acid

Tetrahydrofolate

Transfer of one-C components; thymine synthesis

26

B12

5' deoxyadenosyl cobalamin

Transfer of methyl groups; intramolectular rearrangements

27

AA

•Amino acids are the building blocks of ____
•___ standard amino acids.
•These can be ______ into
•Amino acids exist as ____ ( _ or _)
•Only _-amino acids are incorporated into proteins.
 


•Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
•20 standard amino acids.
•These can be transformed to other amino acids (Ex: Ornithine).
•Amino acids exist as stereoisomers (D & L)
•Only L-amino acids are incorporated into proteins.


 

28

Nonpolar, Aliphatic Amino Acids


•Within proteins, these amino acids 

•Proline has a ____
•Glycine is the ____, causes the least____

G, A, P, V, L, I

Gapvil

The physicochemical properties of amino acids are determined by their side chains.


•Within proteins, these amino acids cluster together forming hydrophobic cores.
•Proline has a ring incorporating a carbon atom.
•Glycine is the smallest amino acid, causes the least steric hindrance within a protein.
 

G, A, P, V, L, I

Gapvil

29

Polar, Uncharged Amino acids
•The ____and ____groups involved in formation of_____.

•These amino acids are found

 


•The hydroxyl and amide groups involved in formation of H-bonds.•These amino acids are found towards the surface of water soluble globular proteins. 
 

Queen Stein Not tein . 
 

30

Acidic and Basic Amino Acids

•These amino acids form _____  and ____.

•Amino acids participate in ____ ____. (___, ___)


•These amino acids form electrostatic interactions and H-bonds.•Amino acids participate in substrate binding. (Phosphate groups, metal ions)
 

DERKH

31

Aromatic Amino Acids

FYW

Phenylalanine is the

•Tyrosine and Tryptophan are___ AND CAN ENGAGE IN 
 


•Phenylalanine is the least polar amino acid.•Tyrosine and Tryptophan are more polar, can engage in H-bonding. 
 

FYW

32

Sulfur Containing Amino Acids

•These amino acids are not

•Sulfhydryl group of free Cystines form 


•These amino acids are not very water soluble.

•Sulfhydryl group of free Cystines form covalent disulfide bonds between one another.

 

MC