Cartilage is a ____ network of ___ fibers, embedded in a ___ but plastic-like ____ substance covered by a membrane called the ____
Cartilage is a dense network of collagen fibers, embedded in a firm but plastic-like gelatinous substance covered by a membrane called the perichondrium.
One of the ____ connective tissues.
- ____ support in adult.
- Pinna of ear, epiglottis
- Articular surfaces in joints.
- ____ support
- During ___ development.
- During ___ of bony tissue e.g. fractures.
One of the supporting connective tissues. Flexible support in adult. Pinna of ear, epiglottis Minimizes abrasion. Articular surfaces in joints. Temporary support During embryonic development. During healing of bony tissue e.g. fractures.
The Three Types of Cartilage
Hyaline Elastic Fibrocartilage
___ plus ___ flexibility.
- ___, articular surfaces.
Type ___ collagen only.
Strength plus limited flexibility. Ribs, articular surfaces. Type II collagen only. Perichondrium.
____strength but ___ flexibility. Collagen type ___ plus ___ ___.
Pinna of ___, ___.
Elastic fibers stained with Weigert’s stain.
Some strength but great flexibility. Collagen type II plus elastic fibers. Pinna of ear, epiglottis. Perichondrium. Elastic fibers stained with Weigert’s stain.
___to ___l stress
___ disc of vertebrae. ___ ____.
___ bundles of type _ collagen plus ___ fibers of type ___ collagen.
___ ____ or ___ ___ arranged in long or short rows.
Resistance to mechanical stress Intervertebral disc of vertebrae. Pubic symphysis. Thick bundles of type I collagen plus fine fibers of type II collagen. Single chondrocytes or isogenic groups arranged in long or short rows. No perichondrium.
Chondro from Greek chondros meaning ____
____ and ____ – cartilage cells.
Perichondrium – ____ cartilage
Chondro from Greek chondros meaning cartilage. Chondroblasts – cartilage cells. Chondrocytes – cartilage cells. Perichondrium – around cartilage
Cells in cartilage are ___.
Chondroblasts are on the ____.
Extracellular matrix fibers “___ ___”.
____ and receives nutrition by_____
- Nutrients diffuse from the ____ in ____ or from the ___ ___
- No ___ ___ or ___!
Cells in cartilage are chondrocytes. Chondroblasts are on the surface. Extracellular matrix fibers “ground substance”. Avascular and receives nutrition by diffusion Nutrients diffuse from the capillaries in perichondrium or from the synovial fluid No lymphatic vessels or nerves!
Chondrocytes. Lie within the ___ they have _____
Chondroblasts. Located in ____.
Perichondrium. A ___ ___ connective tissue divided into the ___ ___ layer and the ___ ____ layer.
Chondrocytes. Lie within the matrix they have synthesized. Chondroblasts. Located in perichondrium Perichondrium. A dense irregular connective tissue divided into the outer fibrous layer and the inner chondrogenic layer.
Lie within ___ known as ____ in the ____.
May continue to ____ material around them by ____growth.
Capable of ___ ___
- Clusters of _ _ _cells
- ___ cell ___
Lie within spaces known as lacunae in the ECM. May continue to synthesize material around them by interstitial growth. Capable of cell division: Clusters of 2, 4 or 8 cells Isogenic cell nests.
Located in the ____on surface of the cartilage.
___ to ___ cells that may resemble ____. Easily differentiate into ____
Located in the perichondrium on surface of the cartilage. Flattened to oval cells that may resemble fibroblasts. Easily differentiate into chondrocytes.
Development of cartilage.
____ arise from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells.
Synthesize ___ and become ___ in this to become known as____.
Differentiation of cartilage takes place from the ___ ____, and eventually the superficial mesenchyme develops into a ____
Chondroblasts arise from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. Synthesize ECM and become embedded in this to become known as chondrocytes. Differentiation of cartilage takes place from the center outward, and eventually the superficial mesenchyme develops into a perichondrium.
Chondroblasts in mature cartilage.
The newly embedded ____ are replaced by the next layer of ____s from the ____.
Chondroblasts are considered to be chondrocytes when they have ___ ___ with ___
The newly embedded chondrocytes are replaced by the next layer of chrondroblasts from the perichondrium. Chondroblasts are considered to be chondrocytes when they have surrounded themselves with matrix
- Adds to ____ mass of cartilage.
- Division of pre-existing c____s.
- In___ ___ of Cartilage.
- In___ ___.
- Within ___ Cartilage.
- Appositional growth:
- In ____.
- Growth and division occurs at ____
- ____ cells.
Interstitial: Adds to inner mass of cartilage. Division of pre-existing chondrocytes. Occurs: In early development of Cartilage. In Epiphyseal Plate. Within Articular Cartilage. Appositional growth: In perichondrium. Growth and division occurs at periphery. Osteoprogenitor cells.
Extracellular Matrix Fibers
All cartilage types contain Collagen type __.
Collagen type II fibers are generally ___ ___ to see at the light microscope level.
Elastic cartilage also contains ___ fbers.
Fibrocartilage also contains numerous large bundles of type__ c ollagen.
Fibers All cartilage types contain Collagen type II. Collagen type II fibers are generally too small to see at the light microscope level. Elastic cartilage also contains elastic fibers. Fibrocartilage also contains numerous large bundles of type I collagen.
Ground substance components include:
Proteoglycans. Chondroitin – 4 sulfate. Chondroitin – 6 sulfate. Keratan sulfate. Core proteins. Chondronectin. Water and ions.
Ground substance components include: Proteoglycans. Chondroitin – 4 sulfate. Chondroitin – 6 sulfate. Keratan sulfate. Core proteins. Chondronectin. Water and ions.
- ECM immediately surrounding the ____
- Rich in _____- poor in ___
- More ___
- ___ ____
Territorial matrix: ECM immediately surrounding the lacunae. Rich in glycosaminoglycans- poor in collagen More basophilic. Interterritorial matrix. Remaining ECM