Reproductive Hormones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reproductive Hormones Deck (26):
1

Chemical, NAme Source, Target, FCN

Peptide

____

_____

_____

____ ____

Chemical, NAme Source, Target, FCN

Peptide

GnRH

Hypothalamus

Pituitary

Reproduction Cycle

2

Chemical, NAme Source, Target, FCN

Glycoprotein

______ (___ and ___) ; _____

___ and ___; ___ and ___

___ ____ ____

___ ____, _____; ____

Chemical, NAme Source, Target, FCN

Glycoprotein

Gonadotropins (LH, FSH); Prolactin

Pit and chorion; Pit and others

Gamete associated cells

Gamete mature, pregnancy; Lactation

3

Chemical, NAme Source, Target, FCN

Steroid

___ and ___ ___ ____

__ __ ___ and ___

___ and ____

___ for ___, ___ ___ ____

Chemical, NAme Source, Target, FCN

Steroid

Male and Female Sex Hormones

Gamete Associated Cells and Others

Reproductive and somatic

Environment for reprod, Secondary sex characteristics

4

Can divide hormones into 3 molecular groups –

1)Peptide – only one hormone (GnRH) involved. Secreted from hypothalamus in brain and target tissue is pituitary. Highest level of regulation of reproductive cycle

2)Glycoprotein – can divide into 2 subgroups – gonadotropins and prolactin. Target for both is Gamete associated cells – ovary = follicaulr cells, males = interstitial ____. FCN of LH and FSH is to make sure gamete mature and keep pregnancy.

3)Steroid. Target is reproductive organ as well as somatic tissue. FCN is to create environ for successful reproduction

Can divide hormones into 3 molecular groups –

1)Peptide – only one hormone (GnRH) involved. Secreted from hypothalamus in brain and target tissue is pituitary. Highest level of regulation of reproductive cycle

2)Glycoprotein – can divide into 2 subgroups – gonadotropins and prolactin. Target for both is Gamete associated cells – ovary = follicaulr cells, males = interstitial ____. FCN of LH and FSH is to make sure gamete mature and keep pregnancy.

3)Steroid. Target is reproductive organ as well as somatic tissue. FCN is to create environ for successful reproduction

5

1. GnRH
(gonadotropin release hormone)

1.Produced in GnRH____ in preoptic anterior ____

 

Can push out gonadotropins

Produced in neuron in hypothalamus (brain), pituitary

Neurons can receive signals from brain and then they begin to secrete GnRH and release in pituiatry for reproduction related hormones in anterior pituitary and lead to release of gonadotropins

1. GnRH
(gonadotropin release hormone)

1.Produced in GnRH neuron in preoptic anterior hypothalamus

 

Can push out gonadotropins

Produced in neuron in hypothalamus (brain), pituitary

Neurons can receive signals from brain and then they begin to secrete GnRH and release in pituiatry for reproduction related hormones in anterior pituitary and lead to release of gonadotropins

6

1. GnRH
(gonadotropin release hormone)

1.Produced in GnRH neuron in preoptic anterior hypothalamus

2.Peptide of ___ amino acid residues

3.Target cells: anterior pituitary

4.Function: promote production of ______ (LH & FSH) 

 

Produced in hypothalamus

Small peptide

This structure  is  ___ ____– if you inject it from humans to fish, it works

1. GnRH
(gonadotropin release hormone)

1.Produced in GnRH neuron in preoptic anterior hypothalamus

2.Peptide of 10 amino acid residues

3.Target cells: anterior pituitary

4.Function: promote production of gonadotropins (LH & FSH) 

 

Produced in hypothalamus

Small peptide

This structure  is Evolutionary preserved – if you inject it from humans to fish, it works

7

2. Gonadotropins 

1.

Anterior pituitary

–Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

–Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Chorion

–___ ___ ____

1.Structure

–____r: common ___chain (92a.a)

                                        unique ___ chain

           LHb (120a.a.)

          FSHb (111 a.a.)

        hCGb (145a.a.)

 

 

They can be made in anterior pit – LH and FSH and in choriion (hCG)

•Lutenizing – includes ___ and___ of __ ___. LH can push ____ – push out eggs, then form __ ___

•FSH – follicle = structure for __ ___, they stimulate ___ ___

 

3 molecules have a similarity

-all heterodimer (2 subunit) and common alpha chain but have different beta chains

Function is close

2. Gonadotropins 

1.Anterior pituitary

–Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

–Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

      Chorion

–Human Chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

1.Structure

–heterodimer: common a chain (92a.a)

                                        unique b chain

           LHb (120a.a.)

          FSHb (111 a.a.)

        hCGb (145a.a.)

 

 

They can be made in anterior pit – LH and FSH and in choriion (hCG)

•Lutenizing – includes ovulation and formation of corpus luteum. LH can push ovulation – push out eggs, then form corpus luteum

•FSH – follicle = structure for nursing eggs, they stimulate folliucular growth

3 molecules have a similarity

-all heterodimer (2 subunit) and common alpha chain but have different beta chains

Function is close

8

2. Gonadotropins 

LH and FSH are from anterior pituitary

Special staining for ____ chains – those cells secrete LH and FSH

Chorion – this embryo and form 2 layers (___ and ____ layers) – (most ___ layers of embryo) and they will ___t on ___ and make contact with mother – so they are made there. Why are they made there? To push mom to keep them – produced there

Chorion – made by ____ à this hormone is ___ ___ in males—NEVER

Everything else is male and female. 

2. Gonadotropins 

LH and FSH are from anterior pituitary

Special staining for sugar chains – those cells secrete LH and FSH

Chorion – this embryo and form 2 layers (amion and chorion layers) – (most outside layers of embryo) and they will implant on uterus and make contact with mother – so they are made there. Why are they made there? To push mom to keep them – produced there

Chorion – made by embryo à this hormone is NOT found in males—NEVER

Everything else is male and female. 

9

2. Gonadotropins 

Targets and FCNS

 

FSH:

Female: ____; __ ___ and ___

Male: ___ cell, ____; ____

 

LH:

Female: ___; ___ and ___

Male: ___ cell; ____

 

hCG

Female: __ ___; ___

Male: N/A

 

___ ___ and ___ are the same thing. Just after ____ they change to lutenal cells.

Chorionic hCG target corpus luteum à important for pregnancy

2. Gonadotropins 

Targets and FCNS

 

FSH:

Female: Granulosa; Follicle grow and mature

Male: Sertoli cell, Speratocyte; Spermatogenesis

 

LH:

Female: Theca; Ovulation and Lutenizing

Male: Leydig cell; Spermatogeneesis

 

hCG

Female: Corpus Luteum; Pregnancy

Male: N/A

 

Corpus luteum and follicle are the same thing. Just after ovulation they change to lutenal cells.

Chorionic hCG target corpus luteum à important for pregnancy

10

3. Prolactin (PRL)

1.Regulated by the dopaminergic system in ____

2.Produced by ___ ____ and many others

3____ forms of PRL

•Little, dominant, 22kD, 198a.a

•Big, 48kD (__ ___)

•Big big, 150kD (___ ____)

4.Target ___ ___ ___ and many others

1.Regulated by the dopaminergic system in hypothalamus

2.Produced by anterior pituitary and many others

3.Three forms of PRL

•Little, dominant, 22kD, 198a.a

•Big, 48kD (no bioactivity)

•Big big, 150kD (low bioactivity)

4.Target mammary epithelial cells and many others

11

4. Steroid Hormones

1.Estrogens

•_____(___)

•Estriol (E3) (during pregnancy)

•Estrone (least abundant )

2.Androgens

•_____

•others

3.Progestogens

•_____

 

 

Steroid hormones split into 3 groups

Each group has many of them

Red is minimal you need to know

structures – similar –

From cholesterol

first make progesterone and then change into testosterone and then they make estrogen à even in females, they must make testosterone first then change into estrogen

4. Steroid Hormones

1.Estrogens

•Estradiol (E2)

•Estriol (E3) (during pregnancy)

•Estrone (least abundant )

2.Androgens

•Testosterone

•others

3.Progestogens

•progesterone

 

 

Steroid hormones split into 3 groups

Each group has many of them

Red is minimal you need to know

structures – similar –

From cholesterol

first make progesterone and then change into testosterone and then they make estrogen à even in females, they must make testosterone first then change into estrogen

12

4. Steroid Hormones

 

____--> --> ____--> --> _____--> ____ (by ____)

4. Steroid Hormones

 

Cholesterol--> --> Progesterone--> --> Testosterone--> Estradiol (by aromatase)

13

4. Steroid Hormones

Sources and blood concentrations 

 

Estradiol: 

Female: _____; 130-370 (Ov)

Male: ____cell; 15-60

 

Progesterone: 

Female: ___ ____ Cell; 4-25 (___) and 0.2-1.4 (___)

Male: ____; 0.1-1

 

Testosterone: 

Female: ___; 6-86

Male: ___ Cell; 270=1100

 

Where are they made. And []

Estradiol or E2 is made in follicular granulosa cells and during ovulation reach highest

Progesrteone made in also granulosa cells but lutein cells (so its corpus luteum)– in ovarian cycle, we have 2 phases (luteal phase and follicular phase)

Testosterone, men make in leydig cell in high concentration

Estradiol in males but low 

 

 

4. Steroid Hormones

Sources and blood concentrations 

 

Estradiol: 

Female: Granulosa; 130-370 (Ov)

Male: Leydig cell; 15-60

 

Progesterone: 

Female: Granulose Lutein Cell; 4-25 (LP) and 0.2-1.4 (FL)

Male: Adrenal; 0.1-1

 

Testosterone: 

Female: Theca; 6-86

Male: Leydig Cell; 270=1100

 

Where are they made. And []

Estradiol or E2 is made in follicular granulosa cells and during ovulation reach highest

Progesrteone made in also granulosa cells but lutein cells (so its corpus luteum)– in ovarian cycle, we have 2 phases (luteal phase and follicular phase)

Testosterone, men make in leydig cell in high concentration

Estradiol in males but low 

 

14

Hormonal Regulation of Reproduction

 

How hormones they work and regulate reproduction

Reproduction = we make exact copy of our cells

1)Need to pack genetic material together like genomic DNA so they have a chance to go down to next generation (gamete à need to be grown and divided and those gametes once mature need to be transported to a certain location ie. ____) then ____ to become ___ à transport into ___ to ___and gestation (growing)à  needs to become embryo then birth and lactation in mammals

3 special stages:

___ cycle: Gamete ___/ ___--> Gamete ____(___, ____)

____: Zygote____ /____--> ____

___: ___--> ____

___ and ___ will have negative feedback to gamete ___ and ____

During pregnancy and lactation, inhibit ovarian cycle. No ovulation. To ensure success of next gen

Hormonal Regulation of Reproduction

 

How hormones they work and regulate reproduction

Reproduction = we make exact copy of our cells

1)Need to pack genetic material together like genomic DNA so they have a chance to go down to next generation (gamete à need to be grown and divided and those gametes once mature need to be transported to a certain location ie. Follical) then fertilzie to become zygote à transport into uterus to implant and gestation (growing)à  needs to become embryo then birth and lactation in mammals

3 special stages:

Ovarian cycle: Gamete growth/maturation--> Gamete transportation (ovulation, fertilization)

Pregnancy: Zygote transportation/implatation--> Gestation

Lactation: Parturition--> Lactation

Gestation and lactation will have negative feedback to gamete growth and maturation

During pregnancy and lactation, inhibit ovarian cycle. No ovulation. To ensure success of next gen

15

1. Ovarian Cycle
a. menstrual cycle 

 

FSH:  ___ ___

LH: ___ __ ____

 

Reproductive tract

Estradiol (E2)-___ of ___, ____

Progesterone-____

 

Ovarian cycles (called ____ cycles – only for humans) – cycle in humans is 28 days – repeated

Start with collection of ____ of uterus and____g and stop and start another one

We recognize bleeding – so we name this day ___. But biologically, this is not true. Usually in animals, ovulation is not when start bleeding but we can’t tell when this occurs.

Most of the time in animals, they try to show signal of ovulation. But humans don’t.

In middle of cycle there is very important ovulation event

Divide to 2 phases à ___ phase and ___ Phase

follicular phase (allow follicle to ____ – egg inside ____ there and purpose is to prepare for ____) then ____  happens

luteal phase occurs where you prepare for _____ – if no fertilize egg comes in, then ____ and start again

 

Lets talk about hormones.

 

LH and FSH

FSH is for Follicle maturation

LH is for Corpus Luteum Formation

Both have a peak at ____

___ peak is sharp and closely related to ovulation

 

Steroid Hormones

Steroid hormones produced by____ cells – they make reproductive ____ prepared for ____ of sperm and fertilized egg and prepared for____  of fertilized egg.

E2 is responsible for ___ ___ ___ to be smooth and growing for transportation of ___ and ___.

Progesterone works on ____ to develop spirial,ready for ____ of eggs

 

 

1. Ovarian Cycle
a. menstrual cycle 

 

FSH:  Follicle maturation

LH: Corpus Luteum formation

 

Reproductive tract

Estradiol (E2)-the lining of tract, myometrium

Progesterone-endometrium 

 

Ovarian cycles (called menstrual cycles – only for humans) – cycle in humans is 28 days – repeated

Start with collection of endometrium of uterus and bleeding and stop and start another one

We recognize bleeding – so we name this day zero. But biologically, this is not true. Usually in animals, ovulation is not when start bleeding but we can’t tell when this occurs.

Most of the time in animals, they try to show signal of ovulation. But humans don’t.

In middle of cycle there is very important ovulation event

Divide to 2 phases à Follicular Phase and Luteal Phase

follicular phase (allow follicle to grow – egg inside matures there and purpose is to prepare for fertilization) then ovulation happens

luteal phase occurs where you prepare for pregnancy – if no fertilize egg comes in, then collapse and start again

Lets talk about hormones.

LH and FSH

FSH is for Follicle maturation

LH is for Corpus Luteum Formation

Both have a peak at ovulation

LH peak is sharp and closely related to ovulation

Steroid Hormones

Steroid hormones produced by granulosa cells – they make reproductive tract prepared for transportation of sperm and fertilized egg and prepared for implant of fertilized egg.

E2 is responsible for reproductive tract lining to be smooth and growing for transportation of egg and sperm.

Progesterone works on endometreum to develop spirial,ready for implantation of eggs

Progesterone-endometrium 

16

1. Ovarian Cycle
a. menstrual cycle 

Regulation

Ovarian cycle hormone regulation

First good example of  how hormones regulate in our body (positive and negative feedback to make a cycle)

The cycle:

first will be from hypothalamus to produce GnRH going to ___ ___ and push out a___ level of LH and FSH --> ___ ____

granulosa cells growing – pump out ___ and ____(e2) and those feedback to ___ ___y to stop secretion of ___ and ___and those decrease.

 

They continue growing and grow to big follicles, they huge (1cm – can see in ultra sound) – Now they pump out really___ oncentration____ (e2) causing ____ ____(- becomes +) to make a ___spike of LH and FSH. Those 2 will lead to ____ and then secondly transform useless follicles into useful ___ ___. This process is called ___.

 

After formation of lutinization, move to ___ phase and corpus luteum begins to make __ hormones – ___e and a little bit of ____. Those together cause___ feedback to stop ____ and sto___ and ___so they all come down.

progesterone will also stimulate ____ to grow and ____ to grow and prepare for____ and if nothing happens then they ____ and cycle restarts

1. Ovarian Cycle
a. menstrual cycle 

Regulation

Ovarian cycle hormone regulation

First good example of  how hormones regulate in our body (positive and negative feedback to make a cycle)

The cycle:

first will be from hypothalamus to produce GnRH going to anterior pituitary and push out a low level of LH and FSH and follicle growing –

granulosa cells growing – pump out estrogen and estrodiol (e2) and those feedback to anterior pituitary to stop secretion of LH and FSH and those decrease.

They continue growing and grow to big follicles, they huge (1cm – can see in ultra sound) – Now they pump out really high concentration estrogen (e2) causing GnRH release (- becomes +) to make a peak spike of LH and FSH. Those 2 will lead to ovulation and then secondly transform useless follicles into useful corpus luteum. This process is called lutenization.

After formation of lutinization, move to luteal phase and corpus luteum begins to make 2 hormones – progesterone and a little bit of estrogen. Those together cause negative feedback to stop GnRH and stop LH and FSH so they all come down.

progesterone will also stimulate uterus to grow and endometrum to grow and prepare for implant and if nothing happens then they collapse and cycle restarts

17

1. Ovarian Cycle
b. menopause

Phenomenon:

•The menstrual cycle continues for many years. But eventually, usually between __ and ___ years of age, the follicles become ___ ____ to___ and ___

•They begin to secrete __ ___

•Ovulation and menstruation become ___ and finally ____. This cessation is called___

 

Hormonal changes:

•With levels of estrogen now running ___/___ or ____ of what they had been

•The hypothalamus is released from their ____ influence, and ___ GnRH is produced.

•GnRH stimulates the pituitary to ____ activity.

•The concentrations of FSH and LH in the blood ___ to ___ or ___ times their former values.

•These elevated levels may cause a variety of unpleasant ___ and ___ symptoms. 

 

 

When female is born, Oocytes generated and usually most of them die out. 99.9%. Only a few successfully ovulated.

Ovarian cycle will last for some time, only to certain age.

Source of oocytes is exhausted and ovarian environment because of aging process, accumulation of toxins. Somehow follicle less responsive to FSH and LH and as a result, they produce less estrogen.

If not enough hormones, ovulation or menstrual cycle becomes irregular and eventually stops – this is menopause

Loop is stopped – first start from ovary – cannot secrete enough estrogen and then leads to negative feedback is gone à this leads to increase of LH and FSH (too low estrogen) leading to more than 10x normal of FSH and LH à high level causes symptoms in post menopause

Which hormone is responsible for unpleasant physical and emotional problems in menopause? FSH and LH too high

1. Ovarian Cycle
b. menopause

Phenomenon:

•The menstrual cycle continues for many years. But eventually, usually between 42 and 52 years of age, the follicles become less responsive to FSH and LH.

•They begin to secrete less estrogen.

•Ovulation and menstruation become irregular and finally cease. This cessation is called menopause.

 

Hormonal changes:

•With levels of estrogen now running one-tenth or less of what they had been

•The hypothalamus is released from their inhibitory influence, and more GnRH is produced.

•GnRH stimulates the pituitary to increased activity.

•The concentrations of FSH and LH in the blood rise to ten or more times their former values.

•These elevated levels may cause a variety of unpleasant physical and emotional symptoms. 

 

 

When female is born, Oocytes generated and usually most of them die out. 99.9%. Only a few successfully ovulated.

Ovarian cycle will last for some time, only to certain age.

Source of oocytes is exhausted and ovarian environment because of aging process, accumulation of toxins. Somehow follicle less responsive to FSH and LH and as a result, they produce less estrogen.

If not enough hormones, ovulation or menstrual cycle becomes irregular and eventually stops – this is menopause

Loop is stopped – first start from ovary – cannot secrete enough estrogen and then leads to negative feedback is gone à this leads to increase of LH and FSH (too low estrogen) leading to more than 10x normal of FSH and LH à high level causes symptoms in post menopause

Which hormone is responsible for unpleasant physical and emotional problems in menopause? FSH and LH too high

18

2. Pregnancy

Form corpus luteum and then finally corpus luteum is____ bc nobody can take care of those cells and collapse.

If Egg fertilize then situation changes

Fertilized egg will become small embryo and transport to___ endometreum which is already prepared for implant

In 9 days –its ___

They Have___ and make hormone: ____

hCG stimulates corpus luteum so it can ___ and ___. Otherwise corpus luteum would just die out and become corpus albicans.

Continue to produce ___ and some ____ (E__ which is a little different than E2)à progesterone necessary for ___ ____ to keep endometreum rich with ___ __ and___

Estrogen with progesterone feedback to ___ to ____ GnRH release so ovarian cycle stops.

If we artificially give progesterone and E3, ovarian cycle stops – this is a concept for contraceptives

This will keep going on and on. 10-12 weeks.

Once embryo is pretty well developed, ___ takes role of corpus luteum to produce progesterone.  And changes from copus luteum to placenta

Form corpus luteum and then finally corpus luteum is gone bc nobody can take care of those cells and collapse.

If Egg fertilize then situation changes

Fertilized egg will become small embryo and transport to uterus endometreum which is already prepared for implant

In 9 days –its implanted

They Have chorion and make hormone: hCG

hCG stimulates corpus luteum so it can survive and grow. Otherwise corpus luteum would just die out and become corpus albicans.

Continue to produce progesterone and some estrogen (E3 which is a little different than E2)à progesterone necessary for embryo development to keep endometreum rich with blood vessels and nutrition

Estrogen with progesterone feedback to hypothalamus to inhibit GnRH release so ovarian cycle stops.

If we artificially give progesterone and E3, ovarian cycle stops – this is a concept for contraceptives

This will keep going on and on. 10-12 weeks.

Once embryo is pretty well developed, placenta takes role of corpus luteum to produce progesterone.  And changes from copus luteum to placenta

19

2. Pregnancy

HcG: Want to keep corpus luteum surviving

Progesterone from corpus luteum dies down and it is replaced by placenta to keep being produced during whole pregnancy.

You can see Prolactin is also increased

2. Pregnancy

HcG: Want to keep corpus luteum surviving

Progesterone from corpus luteum dies down and it is replaced by placenta to keep being produced during whole pregnancy.

You can see Prolactin is also increased

20

2. Pregnancy

Changes in Periodontal Tissues during Pregnancy

•Increased tendency for ____, larger gingival ___ ___ and periodontitis.

•Increased ____ to ____

•Decreased ____ ___ and depressed ___ ___

•Increased numbers of _____

•typically worsens around the ____ month and reaches a peak in the____ month.

•Any pregnancy-related gingivitis usually ____ within a few months of ____

•Periodontal disease, in turn, increase the risk for __ ___t infants and cause other complications, it is important for pregnant women to see a dentist.

 

During pregnancy, periodontal disease is a problem.

This shows you the phenomena.

Gingiva – if gingiva become bad and get more infection, bacteria leads to low weight, premature infants

This is like a feedback. You need to pay attention to this slide.

**There will be a question form this slide**

2. Pregnancy

Changes in Periodontal Tissues during Pregnancy

•Increased tendency for gingivitis, larger gingival probing depths and periodontitis.

•Increased susceptibility to infection

•Decreased neutrophil chemotaxis and depressed antibody production.

•Increased numbers of periodontopathogens

•typically worsens around the second month and reaches a peak in the eighth month.

•Any pregnancy-related gingivitis usually resolves within a few months of delivery.

•Periodontal disease, in turn, increase the risk for low-weight infants and cause other complications, it is important for pregnant women to see a dentist.

 

 

During pregnancy, periodontal disease is a problem.

This shows you the phenomena.

Gingiva – if gingiva become bad and get more infection, bacteria leads to low weight, premature infants

This is like a feedback. You need to pay attention to this slide.

**There will be a question form this slide**

21

2. Pregnancy

Effects of progesterone on the periodontal tissues

•Increases vascular ___ and ____

•Increases the production of ____

•Increases ___ and prostaglandin____ in the___ __ ____

•Reduces ____ ___ ____effect

•Inhibits ___ and___ ____s in ___ ____

•Inhibits ___ of human ___ ___ 

•Alters___ and ___ of collagen production in gingiva resulting in___ ___  and ____ potential

•Increases the metabolic___ of ___ which is necessary for__ ___ and___

 

:Last side tells you phenomena.

This tells you why?

All because of ____ – leads to phenomenon

1)Increases permeability of blood vessels of gum tissue and production of prostaglandin E2 (not same as other estrogen E2) and reduce repairing mechanism

2. Pregnancy

Effects of progesterone on the periodontal tissues

•Increases vascular dilatation and permeability

•Increases the production of prostaglandins

•Increases PMN and prostaglandin E2 in the gingival crevicular          fluid (GCF)

•Reduces glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory effect

•Inhibits collagen and noncollagen synthesis in PDL fibroblast

•Inhibits proliferation of human gingival fibroblast proliferation

•Alters rate and pattern of collagen production in gingiva resulting in reduced repair and maintenance potential

•Increases the metabolic breakdown of folate which is necessary for tissue maintenance and repair

 

:Last side tells you phenomena.

This tells you why?

All because of progesterone! – leads to phenomenon

1)Increases permeability of blood vessels of gum tissue and production of prostaglandin E2 (not same as other estrogen E2) and reduce repairing mechanism

22

3. Lactation

Prolactin (PRL) 

•Regulated by the____ system in ____

•Produced by ___ ___ and many others

•Target ___ ____ cells and many others

•___ ___ production in hypothalamus, and thus, ___cycle

•___ is natural contraception

 

Oxytocin   

•____ pituitary

•milk ____ “The __ ___reflex” 

 

 

Prolactin – regulated by dopamine (usually ____ inhibition) – if domapiine there, stopes release of prolactin. This is also in hypothalamus. System starts from hypothalamus.

If this negative inhibition is gone, will produce by anterior pitutiary (and others)

Target is mammary epithelial cells which push synthesis of milk protein and milk components

If we have too many prolactin, inhibit GnRH production therefore no ovarian cycle and therefore, lactation is a natural contraception à breast feeding mother will not get pregnant again to let baby can grow well

In addition to prolactin, another hormone ,oxytocin from posterior pituitary à signals let go of milk à this hormone allows milk letdown

3. Lactation

Prolactin (PRL) 

•Regulated by the dopaminergic system in hypothalamus

•Produced by anterior pituitary and many others

•Target mammary epithelial cells and many others

•Inhibits GnRH production in hypothalamus, and thus, ovarian cycle

•Lactation is natural contraception

Oxytocin   

•posterior pituitary

•milk ejection “The let down reflex” 

 

 

Prolactin – regulated by dopamine (usually negative inhibition) – if domapiine there, stopes release of prolactin. This is also in hypothalamus. System starts from hypothalamus.

If this negative inhibition is gone, will produce by anterior pitutiary (and others)

Target is mammary epithelial cells which push synthesis of milk protein and milk components

If we have too many prolactin, inhibit GnRH production therefore no ovarian cycle and therefore, lactation is a natural contraception à breast feeding mother will not get pregnant again to let baby can grow well

In addition to prolactin, another hormone ,oxytocin from posterior pituitary à signals let go of milk à this hormone allows milk letdown

23

3. Lactation

Usually, blocked by ____ and will not secrete prolactin

___ of nipples – nipples have ___ receptors which will ____ feedback to hypothalamus. This will deliver positive signals to both ___ and ___ pituitary to allow synthesis of milk and milk letdown respectively

Oxytocin – everytime you feed,

Prolactin has ____ waves because they need a little more time.

Prolactin inhibits GnRH release and therefore ovarian cycles

____ can promote prolactin production

3. Lactation

Usually, blocked by dopamine and will not secrete prolactin

Suckling of nipples – nipples have mechanical receptors which will positive feedback to hypothalamus. This will deliver positive signals to both anterior and posterior pituitary to allow synthesis of milk and milk letdown respectively

Oxytocin – everytime you feed,

Prolactin has longer waves because they need a little more time.

Prolactin inhibits GnRH release and therefore ovarian cycles

Estrogen can promote prolactin production

24

3. Lactation

During lactation stage, hormones in blood of mother.

Progesterone gradually ____ after____. You don’t need it. Baby already delivered.

Estrogen needs to be___ ____  because need to pump out tiny amount of ___

Suckling of nipples leads to quick change of ___ (synchronized to nipple suckling)

____ kept at a high level because of estrogen and suckling

3. Lactation

During lactation stage, hormones in blood of mother.

Progesterone gradually reduced after delivery. You don’t need it. Baby already delivered.

Estrogen needs to be kept level because need to pump out tiny amount of prolactin.

Suckling of nipples leads to quick change of oxytocin (synchronized to nipple suckling)

Prolactin kept at a high level because of estrogen and suckling

25

3. Lactation

 

Prolactin’s functions beyond lactation

Prolactin is for ___ ___

When pregnant women have high concentration of prolactin (especially during ____y)

In men, pretty___  – next slide. How do we explain this? Not just minimal trace amt. 

3. Lactation

 

Prolactin’s functions beyond lactation

Prolactin is for milk making.

When pregnant women have high concentration of prolactin (especially during delivery)

In men, pretty high – next slide. How do we explain this? Not just minimal trace amt. 

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3. Lactation

Prolactin’s functions beyond lactation

Production of PRL in other tissues:

___, decidua,___ , ___,  ___,   ___ and ___

Functions of PRL beyond lactation

1.Weak function as ____ and enhance ____ hormone-receptors in ___ cells.

2.Stimulate proliferation of ____ in CNS.

3.Fetus___ 

4.In general, ___ ___ factor, ___ , and ___ factor 

 

 

Prolactin produced in other tissues – CNS, male prostate, lymphocytes, leukocyte, etc

Prolactin only for lactation? NO!

Functions include relation between oligodendrocytes in CNSà important to keeping our brain working

Prolactin has anti-apoptotic factors, for differentiation and can also act as a growth factor

3. Lactation

Prolactin’s functions beyond lactation

Production of PRL in other tissues:

  CNS, decidua, myometrium, breast, lymphocytes,   leukocytes and prostate.

Functions of PRL beyond lactation

1.Weak function as gonadotropin and enhance luteinizing hormone-receptors in Leydig cells.

2.Stimulate proliferation of oligodendrocytes in CNS.

3.Fetus development.

4.In general, anti-apoptotic factor, differentiation, and growth factor 

 

 

Prolactin produced in other tissues – CNS, male prostate, lymphocytes, leukocyte, etc

Prolactin only for lactation? NO!

Functions include relation between oligodendrocytes in CNSà important to keeping our brain working

Prolactin has anti-apoptotic factors, for differentiation and can also act as a growth factor