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Flashcards in Integument Deck (36):
1

Integument Functions.

Protection:

  • Mechanical - against ____
  • Against penetration of____ – ____ barrier.
  • ____ 
  • Protection against ____ substances and ____ factors.

Protection: Mechanical - against abrasion Against penetration of chemicals – permeability barrier. Immunological. Protection against invading substances and environmental factors.

2

Integument Functions.

_____ regulation: Blood vessels, sweat glands

____:  Nerve endings, receptors

____:  Vitamin ___ for ____ absorption. ____of metabolites

____ Signaling: Hair patterns, ____

Temperature regulation: Blood vessels, sweat glands Sensation: Nerve endings, receptors Metabolism: Vitamin D3 for calcium absorption Excretion of metabolites Gender Signaling: Hair patterns, pheromones.

3

Skin. Skin consists of 3 main layers:

____ layer – ___

____ ___ layer – ___

___ ___ layers – ____

Skin consists of 3 main layers: Epithelial layer – epidermis. Connective tissue layer – dermis Supporting deep layers – hypodermis.

4

Origins.

Epidermis from ____.

  • ___ ___ ___ epithelium

Dermis and hypodermis are from _____

  • ___ ___ connective tissue

Epidermis from ectoderm Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium Dermis and hypodermis are from mesoderm Dense irregular connective tissue

5

Epidermis.

Varies in ____ depending on function.

Rete pegs – _____ _____ of epidermis to ___ te surface area for attachment.

Corresponding ____ in the connective tissue (connective tissue _____) accommodate these rete pegs.

Varies in thickness depending on function. Rete pegs – downward projections of epidermis to increase the surface area for attachment. Corresponding pits in the connective tissue (connective tissue papillae) accommodate these rete pegs.

6

Epidermal Cell Layers.

Stratum ___

Stratum____

Stratum ____

Stratum ____

Stratum____

Stratum corneum. Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale

 

CLGSB

Corey Likes Girls So Bye

7

Stratum basale.

Layer next to the___ ___

A ____ layer of cells.

____differentiated cells.

____ cells for proliferation.

Most ___ ____ occurs here.

Layer next to the basement membrane. A single layer of cells. Least differentiated cells. Stem cells for proliferation. Most cell division occurs here.

8

Stratum spinosum.

Often the ____ layer of the skin.

The layers in which ____ of the differentiation occurs. ____ cell division in a few of the lower layers.

Cells differentiate as ____

Often the thickest layer of the skin. The layers in which most of the differentiation occurs. Limited cell division in a few of the lower layers. Cells differentiate as groups.

9

Stratum granulosum.

Layers where assembly of ____ starts and is mostly_____.

Cell start to ____.

Granules of ____ are present.

Membrane coating granules

  • Release a timed ____  material into the ____cellular space – that ____ in its adhesion as the cell continue to differentiate.

Layers where assembly of keratin starts and is mostly completed. Cell start to flatten. Granules of keratohyalin are present. Membrane coating granules Release a timed adhesive material into the intercellular space – that decreases in its adhesion as the cell continue to differentiate.

10

Stratum lucid.

A ___ layer that is only detected in ___ skin.

Organelles are ___ or are greatly ___.

This layer appears as a clear layer in histological sections.

A clear layer that is only detected in thick skin. Organelles are absent or are greatly diminished. This layer appears as a clear layer in histological sections.

11

Stratum Corneum.

Stratum corneum (cornified layer)

___ cells known as ____ - tough envelopes of keratin highly resistant to _____

Becomes ___ adhesive to the adjacent cells as they get ____ to the surface.

S. corneum cells are the end product – the ___ ___differentiated cells.

Stratum corneum (cornified layer)

Flattened cells known as squames - tough envelopes of keratin highly resistant to abrasion. Becomes less adhesive to the adjacent cells as they get closer to the surface. S. corneum cells are the end product – the most highly differentiated cells.

12

Epidermal Cell Layers.

Stratum basale –basal layer a ___ layer Stem cells – ___ differentiated

Stratum spinosum -___ or prickle cell layer.____ of ___ occurs here.

Stratum granulosum – granular layer. ____ assembled.

Stratum lucidum (only in thick skin). Most ____ lost

Stratum corneum – cornified layer (squames). End product, the ___ differentiated cells, highly ____ to abrasion.

Stratum basale –basal layer a single layer Stem cells – least differentiated Stratum spinosum - spinous or prickle cell layer. Most of differentiation occurs here. Stratum granulosum – granular layer. Keratin assembled. Stratum lucidum (only in thick skin). Most organelles lost. Stratum corneum – cornified layer (squames). End product, the most differentiated cells, highly resistant to abrasion.

13

Thick Skin

Relatively thick epidermis.

____ layers of stratum ___, ___.

The number of layers depends on the____n.

Contains a stratum ____.

Contains ___ ___ glands. No ___ ___

Relatively thick epidermis. Multiple layers of stratum corneum, spinosum. The number of layers depends on the function. Contains a stratum lucidum. Contains eccrine sweat glands. No hair follicles.

14

Thin Skin. Relatively thin epidermis.

Skin is usually subjected to ____ mechanical abrasion

. Contains numerous__ ___ ___.

May contain ___ sweat glands.

____ hair follicles.

Relatively thin epidermis. Skin is usually subjected to less mechanical abrasion. Contains numerous eccrine sweat glands. May contain apocrine sweat glands. Contains hair follicles.

15

Epidermal Cell Populations.

____
____ ____
_____
___ ____

 

Keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, Melanocytes & Merkel Cells.

16

Keratinocytes. “Keratinocytes” applies to the cells in ___ layers of the ____ from those in the basal layer up to and including those cells in the stratum corneum. Comprise approximately 95% of the total epidermal cell population and perform the major function in skin of producing a __ ___ layer of cells.

“Keratinocytes” applies to the cells in all layers of the epidermis from those in the basal layer up to and including those cells in the stratum corneum. Comprise approximately 95% of the total epidermal cell population and perform the major function in skin of producing a tough outer layer of cells.

17

Langerhans’ Cells.

  • Located in the ____ near the ____ layers of epidermis.
  • ___ cells.
  • ___ – antigen processing cells – take up and process antigens to render them more immunogenic. Can migrate to regional lymph nodes to initiate an immune response.

Located in the epidermis near the basal layers of epidermis. Dendritic cells. APC – antigen processing cells – take up and process antigens to render them more immunogenic. Can migrate to regional lymph nodes to initiate an immune response.

18

Melanocytes.

____ physically located in the epidermis but melanocyte ___ ____between the ____ in the ___ layers.  (_____)

Synthesize____ –___ reaction – in organelles known as ____.

____ some melanin to the surrounding keratinocytes to form a ____ layer of melanin protecting the lower cell layers.

Not physically located in the epidermis but melanocyte processes extend between the keratinocytes in the lower layers. (Basal)

Synthesize melanin –DOPA reaction – in organelles known as melanosomes. Donate some melanin to the surrounding keratinocytes to form a protective layer of melanin protecting the lower cell layers. 

19

Epidermal Melanocyte unit.

This term is applied to a ___ and the ___ ____( in the ____ cell layer) to which it has ____ some melanin.

Epidermal Melanocyte unit. This term is applied to a melanocyte and the surrounding keratinocytes (in the spinous cell layer) to which it has donated some melanin.

20

Merkel Cells.

Cells that are part of the______ system.

____ in number.

Located in the ___ near the ___ ___.

Close association with ___ ___.

Probably ____ to detect light ____ such as minor distortions to surrounding connective tissue.

Cells that are part of the neuroendocrine system. Few in number. Located in the dermis near the basement membrane. Close association with nerve endings. Probably mechanoreceptors to detect light pressure such as minor distortions to surrounding connective tissue.

21

Basement Membrane A selective ___ way barrier between ___ and ____ -dealt with in previous lectures.

Formed by contributions from both the ____ cells of the epidermis and ___ ___ cells in the dermis.

A selective two way barrier between dermis and epidermis -dealt with in previous lectures. Formed by contributions from both the basal cells of the epidermis and connective tissue cells in the dermis.

22

Dermis.

A ___ ___connective tissue.

Dermal papillae are ____ projections that accommodate the __ ___ and carrying ___ ____ to the epidermis.

Two layers

___ layer of dermis – closest to the ___ ___.

____ layer of dermis – between the papillary layer and the ____

A dense irregular connective tissue. Dermal papillae are upward projections that accommodate the rete pegs and carrying blood vessels to the epidermis. Two layers Papillary layer of dermis – closest to the basement membrane. Reticular layer of dermis – between the papillary layer and the hypodermis.

23

Dermis Layers.

Papillary layer. Immediately adjacent to the basement membrane. ___ ____ fibers ____oriented.

Reticular layer. Deeper layer. ____ bundles of collagen oriented in ____t directions to resist ____

Papillary layer. Immediately adjacent to the basement membrane. Fine collagen fibers randomly oriented. Reticular layer. Deeper layer. Coarse bundles of collagen oriented in different directions to resist distortion.

24

Hypodermis.

The deepest layer.

____ varies, thicker in____skin.

Contains

  • ____ tissue.
  • Major __ ___, ___, ____
  • Sweat glands (___,_____).
  • ___ ___.
  • Some deep ____ receptors.

The deepest layer. Thickness varies, thicker in thin skin. Contains Adipose tissue. Major blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics. Sweat glands (eccrine and apocrine). Hair follicles. Some deep sensory receptors.

25

Skin Vascular Supply.

Two major vascular plexuses:

1. Between ____ and ____ layer – one of the major functions is ____of ____.

2. Between the ___ and ___

Two major vascular plexuses: 1. Between papillary and reticular layer – one of the major functions is control of temperature. 2. Between the hypodermis and dermis.

26

Skin –Nerve supply.

Nerves in the skin are of two types:

___ ____nerves that mediate ___, ___ ,___, ___and ___

___ ____nerves supplying ___ ___, ___ ___ and arrector pili ____ associated with __ ___

Nerves in the skin are of two types: Afferent somatic nerves that mediate pain, touch, pressure, heat and cold. Efferent autonomic nerves supplying blood vessels, sweat glands and arrector pili muscles associated with hair follicles.

27

Sensory Endings.

Numerous sensory ending are found in dermis most are close to the ____.

  • Meissner’s corpuscles –___ touch
  • Merkel discs – ____ touch
  • Ruffini corpuscles – respond to ____ of ___
  • Krause’s end bulbs – ___ ___, heat?
  • ____ nerve endings

Pacinian corpuscles –___ ___ -______

Numerous sensory ending are found in dermis most are close to the epidermis Meissner’s corpuscles –light touch Merkel discs – light touch Ruffini corpuscles – respond to deformation of dermis. Krause’s end bulbs – mechanical stimulation, heat? Free nerve endings Pacinian corpuscles – deep pressure -hypodermis

28

Adnexal Structures.

Adnexal refers to Epithelial ______

___ ___ and ___ ___ (thin skin only).

___ ___ 

____

Adnexal refers to Epithelial appendages Hair follicles and sebaceous glands (thin skin only). Sweat glands. Nails.

29

Hair Follicles.

Hairs derive from both ___and __ ___ components and extend down through the ____to the ____.

Hair follicle. Hair bulb. Dermal Papilla. Hair medulla and cortex. External root sheath. Connective tissue sheath. Arrector pili muscle – goose bumps. Sebaceous glands.

Hairs derive from both epidermal and connective tissue components and extend down through the dermis to the hypodermis. Hair follicle. Hair bulb. Dermal Papilla. Hair medulla and cortex. External root sheath. Connective tissue sheath. Arrector pili muscle – goose bumps. Sebaceous glands.

30

Hair Characteristics.

Hairs can vary significantly in their ___ ___.

Vellus hairs – very ___hairs e.g. forehead produced by ___ follicles.

Terminal hairs – ___ ___ hairs e.g. scalp hairs and beard in males, usually ___ diameter, ___follicles.

Hairs can vary significantly in their physical form. Vellus hairs – very fine hairs e.g. forehead produced by small follicles. Terminal hairs – long, coarse hairs e.g. scalp hairs and beard in males, usually large diameter, long follicles.

31

Hair Growth. Hair growth is not a ____s process but a___ process:

Anagen - __ ___develops.

Catagen – brief ____period following anagen.

Telogen – ____ rest period.

____ of hair (75-80%) is in the ___ stage.

Hair growth is not a continuous process but a cyclic process: Anagen - new hair develops. Catagen – brief rest period following anagen. Telogen – long rest period. Most of hair (75-80%) is in the anagen stage.

32

Glands. Three types of glands are found in skin:

____ glands.

___ ___t glands.

___ ____t glands.

Three types of glands are found in skin: Sebaceous glands. Eccrine sweat glands. Apocrine sweat glands.

33

Sebaceous Glands.

Associated with ___ and secrete ___ onto the hair shaft.

Cells have “____” appearance.

Cells secrete by ____ mode of secretion with ducts opening onto hair shaft.

Secretion known as ____: An____ secretion with ____, ___ and ___ properties.

Associated with hairs and secrete directly onto the hair shaft. Cells have “foamy” appearance. Cells secrete by holocrine mode of secretion with ducts opening onto hair shaft. Secretion known as sebum: An oily secretion with bacteriostatic, bactericidal and lubricating properties.

34

Eccrine Sweat Glands.

____ coiled ____ glands common in both ___ and ____ skin.

Secretory portion is in the ____.

Duct travels to the surface .

Duct is ___ ____epithelium.

Simple coiled tubular glands common in both thick and thin skin. Secretory portion is in the hypodermis. Duct travels to the surface . Duct is stratified cuboidal epithelium.

35

Apocrine Sweat Glands.

Found only in the ____.

___ lumen in its secretory portions.

Secrete ____.

Secretion of all sweat glands is ____

Found only in the axillae. Large lumen in its secretory portions. Secrete pheromone. Secretion of all sweat glands is merocrine.

36

Dental Correlates

Melanoma may show one or more of typical ABCDE characteristics:

____: one part of the tumor differs from other parts;

____of the tumor is irregular;

____: tumor may be of different colors, often several colors are present in one tumor;

____ above __ mm (in most cases),

____: lesion growths and changes color and appearance with time 

Melanoma may show one or more of typical ABCDE characteristics: Asymmetry: one part of the tumor differs from other parts; Border of the tumor is irregular; Color: tumor may be of different colors, often several colors are present in one tumor; Diameter above 6 mm (in most cases), Evolving: lesion growths and changes color and appearance with time