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Flashcards in Intro to Neuro Deck (23):
1

The _____ is the functional unit of the nervous system

___ ____ Neuron: Motor impulse

___ ____  Neuron:Sensory impulse

Two types of neurons

Neuron is a fcnal unit of the NS

1) Motor Bipolar Nueron: Has ___ ends

On one side: Nerve __ ___ Projecting out from that are ____

They will connect with other nerves

From nerve cell body runs an ___ to an ___ that does the work or to another neuron.

 

2) Sensory Pseudounipolar Nueron

Dendrite is a __ ___ or process that connects to nerve __ ___

Axon carries on the impulse.

Just skips going thru the the ___ going directly to ___

Info carried into the CNS

The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system Motor Bipolar Neuron: Motor impulse Sensory Pseudounipolar Neuron:Sensory impulse Two types of neurons Neuron is a fcnal unit of the NS Motor Bipolar Nueron: Has two ends On one sideL Nerve cell body Projecting out from that are dendrites They will connect with other nerves From nerve cell body runs an axon to an organ that does the work or to another neuron. 2) Sensory Pseudounipolar Nueron Dendrite is a single fiber or process that connects to nerve cell bodyAxon carries on the impulse. Just skips going thru the the body going directly to CNS Info carried into the CNS

2

There are two parts to the nervous system: ___ and ___ 

 

The central nervous system (CNS) is the ___ and ___  

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of an ____ component bringing information___  the CNS and an ____ system carrying motor impulses to____  that move or secrete.

 

CNS: where ___ gets ____ finally and responses formulated and sent out

Gets info from the afferent neuron. They approach the CNS. They carry info into the CNS. Info comes from the ____ receptors (___ ___s and from r____s that we aren’t really aware of____ __)

Chemorecptors: sensitive to ___ in the blood

Baroreceptors: __ receptors such as those in the arteries of the neck (sensitive to BP from that info BP gets raised or lowered)

Osmoreceptors are sensitive to__ ___ like salt. To increase or decrease drinking behavior

Responses are formulated in the CNS and then sent out thru Efferent neurons ( exit) and go to the ___ ___

4 choices of effector organs: ___ Muscle: under voluntary control and ___ ____ ____

Autonomic NS helps us maintiain ____. Autonomic system is a ___ system. No___ component.

There are two parts to the nervous system: central and peripheral The central nervous system (CNS) is the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of an afferent component bringing information to the CNS and an efferent system carrying motor impulses to organs that move or secrete. CNS: where info gets processed finally and responses formulated and sent out Gets info from the afferent neuron. They approach the CNS. They carry info into the CNS. Info comes from the sensory receptors (special senses and from receptors that we aren’t really aware of  Internal Invironment) Chemorecptors: sensitive to CO in the blood Baroreceptors: P receptors such as those in the arteries of the neck (sensitive to BP from that info BP gets raised or lowered) Osmoreceptors are sensitive to ion conc like salt. To increase or decrease drinking behavior Responses are formulated in the CNS and then sent out thru Efferent neurons ( exit) and go to the effector organs 4 choices of effector organs: Skeletal Muscle: under voluntary control Smooth Cardiac Glands Autonomic NS helps us maintiain homeostasis. Autonomic system is a motor system. No sensory component.

3

NOTES FOR NEXT FIGURE

--Nerve cell bodies send out ____ which connect with other nerves by making a ___ with their ____.

--At the synapse ____ chemicals carry the impulse from one nerve to th ____ or from a nerve to a target such as a ____

--__ ___ may synapse with one nerve, and ___ nerve with many.

 

Info often transmitted along a chain of neurons

Axon branches and branches connect with dendrites of the next neuron at connections are called synapses

Synapse: where __ __ ___

 An impulse leaving synapse is ____ fiber/process

Leads to next __ ___, to next axon, to next dendrites and so on

 

Many nerves covered by an insulating layer called ____.

__ ___ substance That myelin increases transmision efficinecy of an inpulse

Not all neurons have that and The ones that don’t are ___

Myelin contributes to ____ appearance of nerves and CNS

One nueron can receive input from 1000 diff neurons One neuron can send info to 1000s of neurons

These synapses are formed as we learn. That’s the basis of the ___ of ___and ___-->more synaptic connections

NOTES FOR NEXT FIGURE --Nerve cell bodies send out axons which connect with other nerves by making a synapse with their dendrites. --At the synapse neurotransmitter chemicals carry the impulse from one nerve to the next or from a nerve to a target such as a muscle. --Many nerve may synapse with one nerve, and one nerve with many. Info often transmitted along a chain of neurons Axon branches and branches connect with dendrites of the next neuron at connections are called synapses Synapse: where axon meets dendrites An impulse leaving synapse is postsynaptic fiber/process Leads to next cell body, to next axon, to next dendrites and so on Many nerves covered by an insulating layer called myelin. White fatty substance That myelin increases transmision efficinecy of an inpulse Not all neurons have that and The ones that don’t are slower Myelin contributes to white appearance of nerves and CNS One nueron can receive input from 1000 diff neurons One neuron can send info to 1000s of neurons These synapses are formed as we learn. That’s the basis of the formation of memories and skills more synaptic connections

4

In the CNS: new memories and skills are formed by the formation of new ___ 

Transmission of information involves a ___ of ___

In the CNS: new memories and skills are formed by the formation of new synapses. Transmission of information involves a chain of neurons.

5

This is a synaptic connection

The end of the axon has these___ fo _____ released into ___ ____

Act on receptors of ____ of next neuron

Activate receptors there that Stimulates ____ of impulse to the next neuron.

This is a synaptic connection The end of the axon has these capsules of nt released into synaptic cleft Act on receptors of dendrite of next neuron Activate receptors there that Stimulates propagation of impulse to the next neuron.

6

Central nervous System: brain and spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system: ___ and ___ ___s.

 

--The brain, in the cranial cavity, is connected to the spinal cord via the ___ ____

--Spinal nerves are given off the spinal cord ____ly at each interval ___ ___ via ____ ____

--____ cervical nerves come off in the neck region, ___ in the thorax, __ in the abdominal-lumbar region, and __in the sacral region.

 

Spinal cord runs thru the vertebrae and it gives off spinal nerves at intervals bw the vertebrae 7 cercival vertebrae...8 cervical nerves

Central nervous System: brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system: spinal and cranial nerves. --The brain, in the cranial cavity, is connected to the spinal cord via the foramen magnum. --Spinal nerves are given off the spinal cord bilaterally at each interval between vertebrae via intervertebral foramina. --Eight cervical nerves come off in the neck region, 12 in the thorax, 5 in the abdominal-lumbar region, and 5 in the sacral region. Spinal cord runs thru the vertebrae and it gives off spinal nerves at intervals bw the vertebrae 7 cercival vertebrae...8 cervical nerves

7

Cross section of spinal cord.

Each spinal nerve is formed from _ nerve ___, the ____ nerve root and the___ nerve root.

As in the other parts of the CNS there are areas of grey matter and areas of white matter

The grey matter consists of clusters of nueron ___ ___

The white matter consists of ___ ___. It is white bc of ___ ___ of nerve fibers. It is peripheral and contains tracts of nerves ___ to the brain, ____ from the brain and ____ at various levels of the cord. 

Partly grey/ partly white White: due to myelin surround the nerves running into the spinal cord

Grey: conc of nerve cell bodies

We have similar distinction of color in the spinal nerves

Spinal nerve leaves spinal cord as ___ and __ ___

The two roots join to form the ___ ___

On the dorsal root, there is an ___, there is grey matter with nerve cell bodies.

A conc of nerve cell bodies like that occuring ___ of ____ this is called a ____

We’ve got a ganglion on the dorsal root of the spinal nerve

A ganglion is made of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS

Cross section of spinal cord.

Each spinal nerve is formed from 2 nerve roots, the posterior nerve root and the anterior nerve root.

As in the other parts of the CNS there are areas of grey matter and areas of white matter

The grey matter consists of clusters of nueron cell bodies

The white matter consists of nerve fibers. It is white bc of myelin sheats of nerve fibers. It is peripheral and contains tracts of nerves ascending to the brain, descending from the brain and connecting at various levels of the cord. 

 

 

Partly grey/ partly white White: due to myelin surround the nerves running into the spinal cord Grey: conc of nerve cell bodies We have similar distinction of color in the spinal nerves Spinal nerve leaves spinal cord as dorsal and ventral root. The two roots join to form the spinal nerve On the dorsal root, there is an enlargement, there is grey matter with nerve cell bodies. A conc of nerve cell bodies like that occuring outside of CNS this is called a ganglion. We’ve got a ganglion on the dorsal root of the spinal nerve A ganglion is made of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS

8

The dorsal root is ___ and all ___

The ventral root is ___ and all ___

Dorsal root ganglion: houses the cell body of an ___ neuron

Out here some sort of sensory organ is stimulated.

Impulse runs in ___ neuron thru the ___ root into the ___

From there the info can go up to the __, to a___ level or make a __ ___ here. Some sort of response is generated

That leaves the CNS via the ___ root in a ___ neuron.

Enters ___ ___  in company with afferent neuron coming from sensory organs.

Dorsal root ganglion: houses the cell body of an afferent neuron Out here some sort of sensory organ is stimulated. Impulse runs in afferent neuron thru the dorsal root into the CNS From there the info can go up to the brain, to a lower level or make a short circuit here. Some sort of response is generated That leaves the CNS via the ventral root in a motor neuron. Enters spinal nerve in company with afferent neuron coming from sensory organs. The dorsal root is afferent and all sensory. The ventral root is efferent and all motor

9

Reflex Arc

Finger being burned

Sensory receptors in skin are stimulated Impulse sent in afferent neroun up the spinal nerve, to the dorsal root and into the CNS In the case of a reflex arc where there is an acute pain

, The impulse Goes thru a ___ ___

. Leaves by a motor neuron thru the ventral root and spinal nerve to effector organ. Biceps in this case.

Muscle contracts and pools the hand out the flame

This occurs ____e the the __ __ can send an impulse to the ___ and tell the brain that the finger is being burned

Hand jerks away before brain even know

Finger being burned Sensory receptors in skin are stimulated Impulse sent in afferent neroun up the spinal nerve, to the dorsal root and into the CNS In the case of a reflex arc where there is an acute pain, The impulse Goes thru a second neruron. Leaves by a motor neuron thru the ventral root and spinal nerve to effector organ. Biceps in this case. Muscle contracts and pools the hand out the flame This occurs before the the first connection can send an impulse to the brain and tell the brain that the finger is being burned Hand jerks away before brain even know

10

Doesn’t even have a ___ ___ here

When patellar tendon is tapped with a hammer and ____ the big muscle in the anterior thigh. The ___ is stretched a little.

This stimulates receptors in the ___.

This Send impulse in afferent neuron to the ___ connecting with an ____t motor neron that runs to that ___ ___

This causes the Leg to kick fwd. Helps us maintain our ____ if leg starts to collapse

Doesn’t even have a second neuron here When patellar tendon is tapped with a hammer and stretches the big muscle in the anterior thigh. The quad is stretched a little. This stimulates receptors in the muscle. This Send impulse in afferent neuron to the CNS connecting with an Efferent motor neron that runs to that same muscle. This causes the Leg to kick fwd. Helps us maintain our balance if leg starts to collapse

11

Somatic refers to the___ as opposed to internal organs.

Implies ____control over things.

 

Autonomic:, ____ control, all ____, ___ neurons involved

 

Sensory and Somatic only have___ neuron connecting with the ___

Autonomic: 2nd neruorn goes to the ___ ___ (smooth, cardiac, glands)

Somatic refers to the Body as opposed to internal organs. Implies Conscious control over things.

Autonomic:, subconscious control, all motor 2 neurons involved And they arre all motor

Sensory and Somatic only have 1 neuron connecting with the CNS Autonomic: 2nd neruorn goes to the effector organ (smooth, cardiac, glands)

12

ANS

___ and ___ only (vs voluntary or somatic)

A ___ neuron system

The autonomic system is entirely ___ causing muscle ___ or glandular ____

CNS gives off _____ fiber that goes to a ____ (collection of nerve cell bodies)

That includes nerve cell body for the ____ neuron which sends its axon to the ___ organ

Two neuron system involving a ganglion bw the 2 nerves

ANS Involuntary and motor only (vs voluntary or somatic) A 2 neuron system The autonomic system is entirely motor causing muscle contraction or glandular secretion CNS gives off preganglionic fiber that goes to a ganglion (collection of nerve cell bodies) That includes nerve cell body for the second neuron which sends its axon to the effector organ Two neuron system involving a ganglion bw the 2 nerves

13

In the sympathetic system, the nerves cell bodies of the second neuron are located in ____ that are either

(1) a ___ on each side of the ___ ___ or (2) in ___ ____ that are ___ and are ___ to the spinal column

Ganglion which houses nerve cell bodies of 2nd neruon In sympathetic sys (one dvision of autonomic ns), those ganglion line up in chain on either side of the vertebral column and form ___ ___ or sympathetic chain of ganglion

In adddion there are ganglia that are anterior to the vertebral column. Unpaired. Prevertebral sympathetic ganglion

Two kinds of autonomic: Sym and Para

Sym involves these chain of ganglia on each side of vertebral column or anterior to it

In the sympathetic system, the nerves cell bodies of the second neuron are located in ganglia that are either (1) a chain on each side of the spinal column or (2) in prevertebral ganglia that are unpaired and are anterior to the spinal column Ganglion which houses nerve cell bodies of 2nd neruon In sympathetic sys (one dvision of autonomic ns), those ganglion line up in chain on either side of the vertebral column and form sympathetic trunk or sympathetic chain of ganglion In adddion there are ganglia that are anterior to the vertebral column. Unpaired. Prevertebral sympathetic ganglion Two kinds of autonomic: Sym and Para Sym involves these chain of ganglia on each side of vertebral column or anterior to it

14

SYMPATHETIC SYSTEM

___ ___ ___

All sympathetic fibers in the ___ come from this ganglion

Sympathetic chain of ganglia

The sympathetic system is referred to as____ ____ outflow: First thoracic to second lumbar spinal nerves

Sympathetic ganglia lie___ from the organ innervated

 

Chain of ganglia run up into the neck to the base of the skull and down into the pelvic region.

Carrying impulses up and down that chain

____ only occurs in thoracic and upper lumbar regions

Impulse leaves thoracic and upper lumbar regions, reaches the chain.

Go ___ or ___. But Only originates from spinal cord in these two regions

Prevertebral ganglia may also be the ____ of a second sympathetic neuron

Either way, the prevertebral or the sympathetic chain ganglia, these are far away from the organs innervated

SYMPATHETIC SYSTEM Superior cervical ganglion All sympathetic fibers in the head come from this ganglion Sympathetic chain of ganglia The sympathetic system is referred to as thoracolumbar outflow: First thoracic to second lumbar spinal nerves Sympathetic ganglia lie far from the organ innervated Chain of ganglia run up into the neck to the base of the skull and down into the pelvic region. Carrying impulses up and down that chain Input only occurs in thoracic and upper lumbar regions Impulse leaves thoracic and upper lumbar regions, reaches the chain. Go up or down. But Only originates from spinal cord in these two regions Prevertebral ganglia may also be the origin of a second sympathetic neuron Either way, the prevertebral or the sympathetic chain ganglia, these are far away from the organs innervated

15

Still talking about the sympathetic system.

Outflow from thoracid and lumbar region into the chain

No connection bw ____ ganglia and ___ ___

 Impulses travel up thru the ___ to the ganglia in the ___ neck region

Finally to the superior cervical gganglia which is note worthy because all of the sympathetic fibers to the ____ have their nerve cell bodies in the superior cervical ganglia

Still talking about the sympathetic system. Outflow from thoracid and lumbar region into the chain No connection bw cervical ganglia and spinal cord Impulses travel up thru the chain to the ganglia in the cervical neck region Finally to the superior cervical gganglia which is note worthy because all of the sympathetic fibers to the head have their nerve cell bodies in the superior cervical ganglia

16

Spinal nerves traveling around the body wall

This shows how the sympathetic trunk connects with the ___ ___ By 2 little nerves called the ___ ___. 

Each level of the spinal nerve in the ___ and ____region you have these connections bw the spinal nerve and the ___ __

Spinal nerves traveling around the body wall This shows how the sympathetic trunk connects with the spinal nerve By 2 little nerves called the communicating rami. Each level of the spinal nerve in the thoracic and lumbar region you have these connections bw the spinal nerve and the sympathetic chain

17

Parasympathetic nerves

Fibers travel on

CN _ _ _ _

sacral nerves_ - _

Referred to as ___ ___ outflow

 

Parasympathetic ganglia are neither ___- nor ___vertebral.

They are ___ to organs innervated, often buried in the ___of the organ

Ganglia near organs in head

Para means ___ or beside It is beside the sympathetic sys

Parasympathetic NS Originates from the ___s of the spinal cord. On sides of symp NS (it was in thoracic and lumbar regions)

We are concerned mostly with parasympathetic in the head.

Para Fibers in the head run in these ___ ___ (3, 7, 9 and 10) In the parasympathic system, the ganglia are right close to the organ that is innervated

In the head, it may be yay far away from the organ innervated.

In the thorax and the abdomen, the ganglia are extremely close to the wall of the organ.

May even be embedded in the wall of the organ

CN ___: ____ nerve. Leaves cranial cavity and goes all the way down to the transverse ___ supplying parastympathetic innervation thru the thorax, lungs, heart, abdomen all the way down to the transverse colon here.

Below that the ____ nerves takes over

This system is often reffered to as the Craniosacral outflow Sacral

Supplying para innervation to terminal __ __ and __ __

Parasympathetic nerves Fibers travel on CN 3,7,9 and 10 sacral nerves 2 - 4 Referred to as Craniosacral outflow Parasympathetic ganglia are neither para- nor prevertebral. They are close to organs innervated, often buried in the wall of the organ Ganglia near organs in head Para means alongside or beside It is beside the sympathetic sys Parasympathetic NS Originates from the ends of the spinal cord. On sides of symp NS (it was in thoracic and lumbar regions) We are concerned mostly with parasympathetic in the head. Para Fibers in the head run in these cranial nerves (3, 7, 9 and 10) In the parasympathic system, the ganglia are right close to the organ that is innervated In the head, it may be yay far away from the organ innervated. In the thorax and the abdomen, the ganglia are extremely close to the wall of the organ. May even be embedded in the wall of the organ CN 10: Vagus nerve. Leaves cranial cavity and goes all the way down to the transverse colon supplying parastympathetic innervation thru the thorax, lungs, heart, abdomen all the way down to the transverse colon here. Below that the sacral nerves takes over This system is often reffered to as the Craniosacral outflow Sacral Supplying para innervation to terminal digestive tract and pelvic organs

18

All sympathetic nerves in the head come from nerves cell bodies in the superior cervical ganglion.

Postganglionic sympathetic fibers riding on the ___ ___on their way to supply glands and smooth muscle in the head

 

This represents the sympathetic chain runing up to the cervical region at which point input ends at the upper end of the thorax but nerve fibers and impulses continue up the cervical chain and the superior cervical ganglion also takes fibers up to the head.

Neurons leave those nerve cell bodies in that superior cervical ganglion and jump on the great arteries to the head.

Ride artery close to where organ innervated is and then they run on __ ___ of nerves

Here we see Sym supply to the mucous organs in the nose, sinuss, roof of the mouth, mid face sympathetic innervation repped by these red dotted lines

All sympathetic nerves in the head come from nerves cell bodies in the superior cervical ganglion. Postganglionic sympathetic fibers riding on the carotid artery on their way to supply glands and smooth muscle in the head This represents the sympathetic chain runing up to the cervical region at which point input ends at the upper end of the thorax but nerve fibers and impulses continue up the cervical chain and the superior cervical ganglion also takes fibers up to the head. Neurons leave those nerve cell bodies in that superior cervical ganglion and jump on the great arteries to the head. Ride artery close to where organ innervated is and then they run on local branches of nerves Here we see Sym supply to the mucous organs in the nose, sinuss, roof of the mouth, mid face sympathetic innervation repped by these red dotted lines

19

Contrast bw somatic and sympathic system

Somatic: afferent neuron carrying an impulse to striated muscle

Sympathetic: impluse from ___,  goes thru ____ root of the spinal nerve. Hooks up with the CNS for response. Response leaves the ventral root and goes to the sympathetic ___ of ___. Post ganglionic neruron travels to ___ to bring out a response, by innervating smooth muscle or glands (except for the case of the heart)

Contrast bw somatic and sympathic system Somatic: afferent neuron carrying an impulse to striated muscle Sympathetic: impluse from viscera, goes thru superior root of the spinal nerve. Hooks up with the CNS for response. Response leaves the ventral root and goes to the sympathetic chain of ganglia. Post ganglionic neruron travels to viscera to bring out a response, by innervating smooth muscle or glands (except for the case of the heart)

20

The word ____ refers to viscera

We’ve got our chain ganglia here.

Motor impulse leaves ventral root passing to the ganglion

At ganglia:

The impulse has 4 choices

1 and 2) It can go ___ or ___ ____(without any _____) and bring about response at a different level

3) Or it can synapse a neuron in that ____. Post ganglionic neuron goes back to the ___ ___ and goes for example to the body wall to bring about a response.

4) Or it can move down to a ___ ___ ___ and that postganglionic neuron runs directly the ___

The word splanchnic refers to viscera We’ve got our chain ganglia here. Motor impulse leaves ventral root passing to the ganglion At ganglia: The impulse has 4 choices 1 and 2) It can go Up or down chain (without any synapses) and bring about response at a different level 3) Or it can synapse a neuron in that ganglion. Post ganglionic neuron goes back to the spinal nerve and goes for example to the body wall to bring about a response. 4) Or it can move down to a prevertebral sympathetic ganglion and that postganglionic neuron runs directly the viscera

21

Stimulus: ___

Response: ___and ____

 

Here we’ve got the intestine and there is some food passing thru the intestine There are ____ there.

Telling intestine to ___ to the food coming

Receptors send off an impulse in the ____ neuron that runs thru the___  chain, up to dorsal root ganglion, into the CNS and in connections with other neurons it will bring out a simple response which will be conducted in this ___ neuron which runs back to the ___ ___, down to the ___ of ganglia and to the ganglion housing the ____ autonomic neuron (____ ganglion in this case)

2nd neuron carries the impulse to the___

Tells the intestine. Stimulate intestine to contract smooth muscle and secrete in response to the food coming thru the intesting

. Receptors in intestine are stimulated when intestine- ____s due to food passing thru it

Those receptors send of impulse to CNS which initiates a response to the sympathetic system thru the sympathetic ganglion and the second neuron runs to the intestine and causes it to contract and secrete to digest the food.

Stimulus: food Response: secretion and contraction Here we’ve got the intestine and there is some food passing thru the intestine There are receptors there. Telling intestine to respond to the food coming

Receptors send off an impulse in the afferent neuron that runs thru the sympathetic chain, up to dorsal root ganglion, into the CNS and in connections with other neurons it will bring out a simple response which will be conducted in this motor neuron which runs back to the spinal nerve, down to the chain of ganglia and to the ganglion housing the 2nd autonomic neuron (prevertebral ganglion in this case) 2nd neuron carries the impulse to the intestine Tells the intestine. Stimulate intestine to contract smooth muscle and secrete in response to the food coming thru the intesting. Receptors in intestine are stimulated when intestine expands due to food passing thru it Those receptors send of impulse to CNS which initiates a response to the sympathetic system thru the sympathetic ganglion and the second neuron runs to the intestine and causes it to contract and secrete to digest the food.

22

Different types of transmitter arrangements along these nerves.

D: Axon goes to effector organ. At that synaptic jcn, it releases ___ as a nt. This is referred to as cholinergic system mainly for pharmological purposes

B: Involves 2 neurons. 1st neuron synapses in a ganglion, where ___ sends impulse to second neuron which runs to the effector organ where again ___ released. Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle or glands. Ach produces effects that are characteristic of the parasympathetic system.

A: 2 neurons. 1st synapse: ___ conducts impulse to the 2nd neuron. . 2nd neuron releases ___ at its terminal. NE stimulates smooth muscle carciac muscle and glands differently than the Ach did from the parasympathetic sys.

C: Adrenal medulla is a special case of the sympathetic system. 1st neuron: synapses with receptors in adrenal medulla. Adrenal medulla is a modification of, represents the developmental remains of the 2nd sympatric neuron. Thus it is able to secrete ___ and___. That goes ___ to ___ ___ from adrenal medulla so you get a ___ surge of adrenaline. The NE and Epi work on smooth muscle, cardiac and glands.

Different types of transmitter arrangements along these nerves. D: Axon goes to effector organ. At that synaptic jcn, it releases Ach as a nt. This is referred to as cholinergic system mainly for pharmological purposes B: Involves 2 neurons. 1st neuron synapses in a ganglion, where Ach sends impulse to second neuron which runs to the effector organ where again Ach released. Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle or glands. Ach produces effects that are characteristic of the parasympathetic system. A: 2 neurons. 1st synapse: Ach conducts impulse to the 2nd neuron. . 2nd neuron releases NE at its terminal. NE stimulates smooth muscle carciac muscle and glands differently than the Ach did from the parasympathetic sys. C: Adrenal medulla is a special case of the sympathetic system. 1st neuron: synapses with receptors in adrenal medulla. Adrenal medulla is a modification of, represents the developmental remains of the 2nd sympatric neuron. Thus it is able to secrete NE and Epi.. That goes directly to blood stream from adrenal medulla so you get a quick surge of adrenaline. The NE and Epi work on smooth muscle, cardiac and glands.

23

Para: For ___ and ___

Symp:For ___ and ____

Along comes a spider.

Sympathetic. ___ of saliva has been used by some societies to try people to determine guilt. Fill suspects mouth with rice. If they can swallow it, they must have enough saliva. So they don’t feel guilty so they are innocent and under parasympathetic In another society they expect the tongue to be wet in an innocent person, so they put a hot blade on the tongue. If it sticks and burns the person’s guilty. If it slides off hes innocent

Para: For maintenance and repair Symp:For urgencies and emergencies Along comes a spider. Sympathetic. Decrease of saliva has been used by some societies to try people to determine guilt. Fill suspects mouth with rice. If they can swallow it, they must have enough saliva. So they don’t feel guilty so they are innocent and under parasympathetic In another society they expect the tongue to be wet in an innocent person, so they put a hot blade on the tongue. If it sticks and burns the person’s guilty. If it slides off hes innocent