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Flashcards in Homeo Deck (8)
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1

Mammals

Have a very ___ tolerance for change in their internal environment, within and around cells

Have highly refined mechanisms to offset or correct any change in their internal environment (that might impair normal metabolism or threaten survival)

Extremely complex organisms supported by assemblies of “functional units”

A functional unit typically contributes only a ____ of the activities that assure the health and survival of the organism

The functional units may be referred to as “Systems”

 

 

 

Mammals

Have a very low tolerance for change in their internal environment, within and around cells

Have highly refined mechanisms to offset or correct any change in their internal environment (that might impair normal metabolism or threaten survival)

Extremely complex organisms supported by assemblies of “functional units”

A functional unit typically contributes only a portion of the activities that assure the health and survival of the organism

The functional units may be referred to as “Systems”

 

 

2

Mammalian Systems (11)

 

Circulatory System: Distribution sys for the flow of blood to and from active cells

Respiratory System: Provides gases (O2) and removal of waste gases such as CO2 from the active cells. Also plays a role in pH regulation

Urinary System (Renal): Volume control system. Controls the water level of the body and the circulating volume. Also plays a key role in pH regulation

_______________________________________________________

Digestive System: Makes use of the circulatory system to carry nut thruout the body

_______________________________________________________

Skeletal System

Muscular System: Enables skeletal sys to move about

Integumentary System

______________________________________________________

Immune System: Key defense system. Being able to identify foreign bodies is a communication sys which can connect with the nervous sys and endocrine sys

Nervous System: Rapid response system to give feedback about info about the environ

Endocrine System: Slower response

______________________________________________________

Reproductive System: Makes use of endocrine system. Primarily focused on procreation of organism

 

Mammalian Systems (11)

 

Circulatory System: Distribution sys for the flow of blood to and from active cells

Respiratory System: Provides gases (O2) and removal of waste gases such as CO2 from the active cells. Also plays a role in pH regulation

Urinary System (Renal): Volume control system. Controls the water level of the body and the circulating volume. Also plays a key role in pH regulation

_______________________________________________________

Digestive System: Makes use of the circulatory system to carry nut thruout the body

_______________________________________________________

Skeletal System

Muscular System: Enables skeletal sys to move about

Integumentary System

______________________________________________________

Immune System: Key defense system. Being able to identify foreign bodies is a communication sys which can connect with the nervous sys and endocrine sys

Nervous System: Rapid response system to give feedback about info about the environ

Endocrine System: Slower response

______________________________________________________

Reproductive System: Makes use of endocrine system. Primarily focused on procreation of organism

 

3

The Cascade of Adjustments

Some are rapid and somewhat gross, others slower and discrete.

The resolution of the “disturbance” may occur over minutes, hours, even days or weeks.

Some disturbances cause injury to metabolic or structural elements of the body. Cells and tissues may die and have to be removed and replaced.  Scar tissues may mend the damage

The Cascade of Adjustments

Some are rapid and somewhat gross, others slower and discrete.

The resolution of the “disturbance” may occur over minutes, hours, even days or weeks.

Some disturbances cause injury to metabolic or structural elements of the body. Cells and tissues may die and have to be removed and replaced.  Scar tissues may mend the damage

4

Sympathetic turns on rapidly and turns off rapidly

Parasympathetic turns on slowly and persists for a longer period of time. Turns off more slowly.

Sympathetic turns on rapidly and turns off rapidly

Parasympathetic turns on slowly and persists for a longer period of time. Turns off more slowly.

5

Homeostasis

 Functions performed by EACH  body system that contribute to an environment that will ensure survival and optimal function of All CELLS

Cells make up Systems that each contribute a specific function that will contribute to the survival of the organism

Smaller organisms have less specialized systems

Larger organisms tend to have a greater number of more specialized systems that require integrated control

Larger organisms tend to function with more precision and have less tolerance for change

But they have more stable environment so that’s okay

 

Homeostasis

 Functions performed by EACH  body system that contribute to an environment that will ensure survival and optimal function of All CELLS

Cells make up Systems that each contribute a specific function that will contribute to the survival of the organism

Smaller organisms have less specialized systems

Larger organisms tend to have a greater number of more specialized systems that require integrated control

Larger organisms tend to function with more precision and have less tolerance for change

But they have more stable environment so that’s okay

 

6

The Body’s Systems

The Nervous System

Key integrator of what goes on

Nerves are made up of excitable membranes. Those have to be properly nourished to run smoothly.

Patient who has gone thru traumatic experience or electrolyte imbalance, you may see muscle spasms,

The Muscular Systems

Excitable membranes that are integrated by the nervous sys

So you can have muscle groups working together.

Or you can get muscles going into spasms bc of instability of those membranes.

People who have exercised intensely, circulatory sys can’t keep up delivering nutrients and getting rid of waste. Marathon runners end up with muscles in bad shape. People working in the fields all day and not hydrating, they have inadequate circulating volumes. Inability to run enough blood thru active muscles to flush out waste and deliver nutrients. When circulation is not adequate, can get muscle breakdown. Degradation products can end up in the kidneys. Creates clots

Crush syndrome: Rescuers who have been under beam for 48 hours. Critical moment is when you remove load. Muscles have started to break down.  If that isn’t controlled well that will all get into general circulation. Trt: Put these people on dialysis to take control electrolytes of waste products that have just been released to circulatory sys

The Cardiovascular System

Circulatory System: Nourishment of brain that is very unstable. CPR...concern about brain damage. Brain needs constant supply of blood. Circulatory sys delivers blood and O2 all around the body. Deliver blood to and from the lungs.

The Urinary System

Kidney: high P filtration organs.

When they have adequate P, they make urine. When they don’t have enough P, they stop making urine.

Increase [] to conserve circulating volume

Any time P falls (Bc Heart isn’t pumping well or circulating volume is inadequate), kidneys will be presented with less P and there will be less urine made.

When Kidneys get that kind of message, they will start to try to conserve volume.

In the case of heart failure, the kidneys have misread what is going on. People develop edema and retain fluid inappropriately. Treat someone with heart failure with a diuretic...make more urine. At the same time give something to the heart like Digitalis or cardiotontic drug to increase contractility

The Respiratory System

The heart has two pumps in series. Low P pump on right side bc lungs cant tolerate high P. 5 fold difference of P from R to L heart

Respiratory Sys is bw those 2 pumps. Requires that lung not get too much P but also that blood is removed from the lungs.

The Digestive System

Requires lots of blood flow and Provides critical processes

Most of the time, we don’t have a lot of blood flow thru the gut (only after eating). There is not enough blood to fill all the vascular system at once.

Shock: brain not getting enough blood. Uncontrolled vasomotor tone. Too many spaces for blood to flow and not enough blood to fill it.

Certain times of day where you have high blood flow to gutDon’t swim until 30 min after you eat.

Impossible dilemma on vascular sys

Increased demand of large muscle groups that need a lot of blood flow.

Not enough blood for digestive sys. Get cramps and can drown

The Endocrine System

Blood borne communication system

Communication by chemical substances

The Reproductive System

Independent entity

 

 

The Body’s Systems

The Nervous System

Key integrator of what goes on

Nerves are made up of excitable membranes. Those have to be properly nourished to run smoothly.

Patient who has gone thru traumatic experience or electrolyte imbalance, you may see muscle spasms,

The Muscular Systems

Excitable membranes that are integrated by the nervous sys

So you can have muscle groups working together.

Or you can get muscles going into spasms bc of instability of those membranes.

People who have exercised intensely, circulatory sys can’t keep up delivering nutrients and getting rid of waste. Marathon runners end up with muscles in bad shape. People working in the fields all day and not hydrating, they have inadequate circulating volumes. Inability to run enough blood thru active muscles to flush out waste and deliver nutrients. When circulation is not adequate, can get muscle breakdown. Degradation products can end up in the kidneys. Creates clots

Crush syndrome: Rescuers who have been under beam for 48 hours. Critical moment is when you remove load. Muscles have started to break down.  If that isn’t controlled well that will all get into general circulation. Trt: Put these people on dialysis to take control electrolytes of waste products that have just been released to circulatory sys

The Cardiovascular System

Circulatory System: Nourishment of brain that is very unstable. CPR...concern about brain damage. Brain needs constant supply of blood. Circulatory sys delivers blood and O2 all around the body. Deliver blood to and from the lungs.

The Urinary System

Kidney: high P filtration organs.

When they have adequate P, they make urine. When they don’t have enough P, they stop making urine.

Increase [] to conserve circulating volume

Any time P falls (Bc Heart isn’t pumping well or circulating volume is inadequate), kidneys will be presented with less P and there will be less urine made.

When Kidneys get that kind of message, they will start to try to conserve volume.

In the case of heart failure, the kidneys have misread what is going on. People develop edema and retain fluid inappropriately. Treat someone with heart failure with a diuretic...make more urine. At the same time give something to the heart like Digitalis or cardiotontic drug to increase contractility

The Respiratory System

The heart has two pumps in series. Low P pump on right side bc lungs cant tolerate high P. 5 fold difference of P from R to L heart

Respiratory Sys is bw those 2 pumps. Requires that lung not get too much P but also that blood is removed from the lungs.

The Digestive System

Requires lots of blood flow and Provides critical processes

Most of the time, we don’t have a lot of blood flow thru the gut (only after eating). There is not enough blood to fill all the vascular system at once.

Shock: brain not getting enough blood. Uncontrolled vasomotor tone. Too many spaces for blood to flow and not enough blood to fill it.

Certain times of day where you have high blood flow to gutDon’t swim until 30 min after you eat.

Impossible dilemma on vascular sys

Increased demand of large muscle groups that need a lot of blood flow.

Not enough blood for digestive sys. Get cramps and can drown

The Endocrine System

Blood borne communication system

Communication by chemical substances

The Reproductive System

Independent entity

 

 

7

Every BODY “knows” the primitive, rapid “fight or flight” survival reaction 

Pupils____

___ pulse rate

___ respiratory rate

___ __ ___

___ ___

Muscles ___ and___, ___ with blood (Get filled up with blood)

Perhaps a ___ in your gut

 

__________

 

Need large muscle groups

Other systems suspended to give more blood to muscles (ex: gut)

 

Blood flow to skin:

Superficial blood vessels vasoconstrict which makes you pale, cold and clammy and Cold Sweat

 

Pressure in muscle can fill up so great that it restricts further blood flowà cramps

 

Pupils dilate: increase peripheral vision

 

Every BODY “knows” the primitive, rapid “fight or flight” survival reaction 

Pupils dilate

Increased pulse rate

Increased respiratory rate

Pale, cold and clammy

Cold sweat

Muscles tense and tight, engorged with blood (Get filled up with blood)

Perhaps a tenseness in your gut

 

SYMPATHETIC

 

Need large muscle groups

Other systems suspended to give more blood to muscles (ex: gut)

 

Blood flow to skin:

Superficial blood vessels vasoconstrict which makes you pale, cold and clammy and Cold Sweat

 

Pressure in muscle can fill up so great that it restricts further blood flowà cramps

 

Pupils dilate: increase peripheral vision

 

8

Every BODY “knows” the primitive “rest and digest” slow, compensatory reaction

____ heart rate

____ respiratory rate

___ ___ ____(no sweat) flesh

Muscles ____

___ gut motility

 

PARASYMPATHETIC